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  The multiphase physics of sea ice: A review

Hunke, E., Notz, D., Turner, A., & Vancoppenolle, M. (2011). The multiphase physics of sea ice: A review. Cryosphere, 5, 989-1009. doi:10.5194/tc-5-989-2011.

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Hunke, E.C., Author
Notz, D.1, 2, Author              
Turner, A.K., Author
Vancoppenolle, M., Author
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1Max Planck Research Group The Sea Ice in the Earth System, The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society, ou_913554              
2The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, DE, ou_913552              

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 Abstract: Rather than being solid throughout, sea ice contains liquid brine inclusions, solid salts, microalgae, trace elements, gases, and other impurities which all exist in the interstices of a porous, solid ice matrix. This multiphase structure of sea ice arises from the fact that the salt that exists in seawater cannot be embedded into the water-ice crystal lattice upon formation of sea ice, but remains in liquid solution. Depending on the ice porosity (determined by temperature and salinity), this brine can drain from the ice, taking other sea ice constituents with it. Thus, sea ice salinity and microstructure are tightly interconnected and play a significant role in polar ecosystems and climate. As large-scale climate modeling efforts move toward earth system simulations that include biological and chemical cycles, renewed interest in the multiphase physics of sea ice has strengthened research initiatives to observe, understand and model this complex system. This review article provides an overview of these efforts, highlighting known difficulties and requisite observations for further progress in the field. We focus on mushy-layer theory, which describes general multiphase materials, and on numerical approaches now being explored to model the multiphase evolution of sea ice and its interaction with chemical, biological and climate systems. © 2011 Author(s)

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2011-09-27201120112011
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.5194/tc-5-989-2011
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Title: Cryosphere
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 5 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 989 - 1009 Identifier: -