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  Disruption and pseudoautosomal localization of the major histocompatibility complex in monotremes

Dohm, J. C., Tsend-Ayush, E., Reinhardt, R., Grützner, F., & Himmelbauer, H. (2007). Disruption and pseudoautosomal localization of the major histocompatibility complex in monotremes. Genome Biology, 8(8), R 175-R 175. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-8-r175.

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Genre: Journal Article
Alternative Title : Genome Biol

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 Creators:
Dohm, Juliane C.1, Author              
Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal, Author
Reinhardt, Richard2, Author              
Grützner, Frank, Author
Himmelbauer, Heinz1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Dept. of Vertebrate Genomics (Head: Hans Lehrach), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1433550              
2High Throughput Technologies, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1433552              

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 Abstract: Background The monotremes, represented by the duck-billed platypus and the echidnas, are the most divergent species within mammals, featuring a flamboyant mix of reptilian, mammalian and specialized characteristics. To understand the evolution of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the analysis of the monotreme genome is vital. Results We characterized several MHC containing bacterial artificial chromosome clones from platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and mapped them onto chromosomes. We discovered that the MHC of monotremes is not contiguous and locates within pseudoautosomal regions of two pairs of their sex chromosomes. The analysis revealed an MHC core region with class I and class II genes on platypus and echidna X3/Y3. Echidna X4/Y4 and platypus Y4/X5 showed synteny to the human distal class III region and beyond. We discovered an intron-containing class I pseudogene on platypus Y4/X5 at a genomic location equivalent to the human HLA-B,C region, suggesting ancestral synteny of the monotreme MHC. Analysis of male meioses from platypus and echidna showed that MHC chromosomes occupy different positions in the meiotic chains of either species. Conclusion Molecular and cytogenetic analyses reveal new insights into the evolution of the mammalian MHC and the multiple sex chromosome system of monotremes. In addition, our data establish the first homology link between chicken microchromosomes and the smallest chromosomes in the monotreme karyotype. Our results further suggest that segments of the monotreme MHC that now reside on separate chromosomes must once have been syntenic and that the complex sex chromosome system of monotremes is dynamic and still evolving.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2007-08-29
 Publication Status: Published in print
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Title: Genome Biology
  Alternative Title : Genome Biol
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 8 (8) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: R 175 - R 175 Identifier: ISSN: 1465-6906