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  Can you feel what you do not see? Using internal feedback to detect briefly presented emotional stimuli.

Bornemann, B., Winkielman, P., & van der Meer, E. (2012). Can you feel what you do not see? Using internal feedback to detect briefly presented emotional stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 85(1), 116-124. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.04.007.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000E-70D0-F Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-FB0E-4
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Bornemann, Boris1, Author              
Winkielman, P.1, Author
van der Meer, E.1, Author
Affiliations:
1External Organizations, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Subliminal stimuli; Emotional faces; Facial electromyography; Biofeedback; Unconscious affect
 Abstract: Briefly presented (e.g., 10 ms) emotional stimuli (e.g., angry faces) can influence behavior and physiology. Yet, they are difficult to identify in an emotion detection task. The current study investigated whether identification can be improved by focusing participants on their internal reactions. In addition, we tested how variations in presentation parameters and expression type influence identification rate and facial reactions, measured with electromyography (EMG). Participants made force-choice identifications of brief expressions (happy/angry/neutral). Stimulus and presentation properties were varied (duration, face set, masking-type). In addition, as their identification strategy, one group of participants was instructed to use their bodily and feeling changes. One control group was instructed to focus on visual details, and another group received no strategy instructions. The results revealed distinct EMG responses, with greatest corrugator activity to angry, then neutral, and least to happy faces. All variations in stimulus and presentation properties had robust and parallel effects on both identification and EMG. Corrugator EMG was reliable enough to statistically predict stimulus valence. However, instructions to focus on the internal states did not improve identification rates or change physiological responses. These findings suggest that brief expressions produce a robust bodily signal, which could in principle be used as feedback to improve identification. However, the fact that participants did not improve with internal focus suggests that bodily and feeling reactions are either principally unconscious, or that other ways of training or instruction are necessary to make use of their feedback potential.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2011-04-192011-01-262011-04-272011-05-232012-07
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.04.007
PMID: 21571012
Other: Epub 2011
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Title: International Journal of Psychophysiology
  Other : Int. J. Psychophysiol.
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 85 (1) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 116 - 124 Identifier: ISSN: 0167-8760
CoNE: /journals/resource/954925484686