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  Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

Moodley, Y., Linz, B., Bond, R. P., Nieuwoudt, M., Soodyall, H., Schlebusch, C. M., et al. (2012). Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man. PLoS Pathogens, 8(5): e1002693. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002693.

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Genre: Journal Article
Alternative Title : PLoS Pathog.

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PLoS_Pathogens_2012_8_e1002693.pdf (Publisher version), 2MB
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Copyright Moodley et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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 Creators:
Moodley, Yoshan1, Author              
Linz, Bodo1, Author              
Bond, Robert P., Author
Nieuwoudt, Martin, Author
Soodyall, Himla, Author
Schlebusch, Carina M., Author
Bernhöft, Steffi1, Author              
Hale, James, Author
Suerbaum, Sebastian, Author
Mugisha, Lawrence, Author
van der Merwe, Schalk W., Author
Achtman, Mark1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Max Planck Society, ou_1664147              

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 Abstract: When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2012-05
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: eDoc: 611181
ISI: 000305322900027
DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002693
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Title: PLoS Pathogens
  Alternative Title : PLoS Pathog.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: SAN FRANCISCO : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 8 (5) Sequence Number: e1002693 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1553-7374