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  How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

Kleidon, A. (2012). How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 370(1962), 1012-1040. doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0316.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000E-DD59-1 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0029-A733-D
Genre: Journal Article

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0316 (Publisher version)
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Kleidon, A.1, Author              
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1Research Group Biospheric Theory and Modelling, Dr. A. Kleidon, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1497761              

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Free keywords: habitability free energy thermodynamics global change geoengineering maximum-entropy production human appropriation nonequilibrium thermodynamics production principle fluctuation theorem global climate heat-transport 2nd law life circulation
 Abstract: The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface-atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would enhance the overall free energy generation and, thereby 'empower' the future of the planet.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2012
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0316
ISI: ://WOS:000300315900002
Other: BGC1638
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Title: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Royal Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 370 (1962) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 1012 - 1040 Identifier: ISSN: 1364-503X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954928604111_1