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  Early false-belief understanding in traditional non-Western societies

Barrett, H. C., Broesch, T., Scott, R. M., He, Z., Baillargeon, R., Wu, D., et al. (2013). Early false-belief understanding in traditional non-Western societies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(1755): 20122654. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2654.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-A765-D Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-9EB3-1
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Barrett, H. Clark1, Author
Broesch, Tanya2, Author
Scott, Rose M.3, Author
He, Zijing4, Author
Baillargeon, Renée5, Author
Wu, Di6, Author
Bolz, Matthias7, Author              
Henrich, Joseph8, Author
Setoh, Peipei5, Author
Wang, Jianxin9, Author
Laurence, Stephen10, Author
Affiliations:
1Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, ou_persistent22              
2Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, ou_persistent22              
3School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA, USA, ou_persistent22              
4Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, ou_persistent22              
5Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA, ou_persistent22              
6Psychology Department, Cedarville University, OH, USA, ou_persistent22              
7Department Social Neuroscience, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634552              
8Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, ou_persistent22              
9Center for Studies of Ethnic Minorities in Northwest China, Lanzhou University, China, ou_persistent22              
10Department of Philosophy, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Theory of mind; Evolutionary psychology; False-belief understanding; Social cognition; Human universals
 Abstract: The psychological capacity to recognize that others may hold and act on false beliefs has been proposed to reflect an evolved, species-typical adaptation for social reasoning in humans; however, controversy surrounds the developmental timing and universality of this trait. Cross-cultural studies using elicited-response tasks indicate that the age at which children begin to understand false beliefs ranges from 4 to 7 years across societies, whereas studies using spontaneous-response tasks with Western children indicate that false-belief understanding emerges much earlier, consistent with the hypothesis that false-belief understanding is a psychological adaptation that is universally present in early childhood. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used three spontaneous-response tasks that have revealed early false-belief understanding in the West to test young children in three traditional, non-Western societies: Salar (China), Shuar/Colono (Ecuador) and Yasawan (Fiji). Results were comparable with those from the West, supporting the hypothesis that false-belief understanding reflects an adaptation that is universally present early in development.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2013-01-302013-03-22
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2654
PMID: 23363628
PMC: PMC3574387
 Degree: -

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Title: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Royal Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 280 (1755) Sequence Number: 20122654 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0962-8452
CoNE: /journals/resource/110975500577295_2