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  Estimation of 3D shape from image orientations

Fleming, R., Holtmann-Rice, D., & Bülthoff, H. (2011). Estimation of 3D shape from image orientations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(51), 20438-20443. doi:10.1073/pnas.1114619109.

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Fleming, RW1, 2, Author              
Holtmann-Rice, D1, 2, Author              
Bülthoff, HH1, 2, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497797              
2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tübingen, DE, ou_1497794              

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 Abstract: One of the main functions of vision is to estimate the 3D shape of objects in our environment. Many different visual cues, such as stereopsis, motion parallax, and shading, are thought to be involved. One important cue that remains poorly understood comes from surface texture markings. When a textured surface is slanted in 3D relative to the observer, the surface patterns appear compressed in the retinal image, providing potentially important information about 3D shape. What is not known, however, is how the brain actually measures this information from the retinal image. Here, we explain how the key information could be extracted by populations of cells tuned to different orientations and spatial frequencies, like those found in the primary visual cortex. To test this theory, we created stimuli that selectively stimulate such cell populations, by “smearing” (filtering) images of 2D random noise into specific oriented patterns. We find that the resulting patterns appear vividly 3D, and that increasing the strength of the orientation signals progressively increases the sense of 3D shape, even though the filtering we apply is physically inconsistent with what would occur with a real object. This finding suggests we have isolated key mechanisms used by the brain to estimate shape from texture. Crucially, we also find that adapting the visual system's orientation detectors to orthogonal patterns causes unoriented random noise to look like a specific 3D shape. Together these findings demonstrate a crucial role of orientation detectors in the perception of 3D shape.

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 Dates: 2011-12
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1114619109
BibTex Citekey: FlemingHB2011
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Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  Other : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA
  Other : Proc. Acad. Sci. USA
  Other : Proc. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  Abbreviation : PNAS
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 108 (51) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 20438 - 20443 Identifier: ISSN: 0027-8424
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925427230