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  Kernel methods for dependence testing in LFP-MUA

Gretton, A., Belitski, A., Murayama, Y., Schölkopf, B., & Logothetis, N. (2005). Kernel methods for dependence testing in LFP-MUA. Poster presented at 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2005), Washington, DC, USA.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-D3BD-8 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-3AF4-7
Genre: Poster

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 Creators:
Gretton, A1, 2, Author              
Belitski, A2, 3, Author              
Murayama, Y2, 3, Author              
Schölkopf, B1, 2, Author              
Logothetis, NK2, 3, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department Empirical Inference, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497795              
2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tübingen, DE, ou_1497794              
3Department Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497798              

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 Abstract: A fundamental problem in neuroscience is determining whether or not particular neural signals are dependent. The correlation is the most straightforward basis for such tests, but considerable work also focuses on the mutual information (MI), which is capable of revealing dependence of higher orders that the correlation cannot detect. That said, there are other measures of dependence that share with the MI an ability to detect dependence of any order, but which can be easier to compute in practice. We focus in particular on tests based on the functional covariance, which derive from work originally accomplished in 1959 by Renyi. Conceptually, our dependence tests work by computing the covariance between (infinite dimensional) vectors of nonlinear mappings of the observations being tested, and then determining whether this covariance is zero - we call this measure the constrained covariance (COCO). When these vectors are members of universal reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, we can prove this covariance to be zero only when the variables being tested are independent. The greatest advantage of these tests, compared with the mutual information, is their simplicity – when comparing two signals, we need only take the largest eigenvalue (or the trace) of a product of two matrices of nonlinearities, where these matrices are generally much smaller than the number of observations (and are very simple to construct). We compare the mutual information, the COCO, and the correlation in the context of finding changes in dependence between the LFP and MUA signals in the primary visual cortex of the anaesthetized macaque, during the presentation of dynamic natural stimuli. We demonstrate that the MI and COCO reveal dependence which is not detected by the correlation alone (which we prove by artificially removing all correlation between the signals, and then testing their dependence with COCO and the MI); and that COCO and the MI give results consistent with each other on our data.

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 Dates: 2005-11
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: BibTex Citekey: GrettonBMSL2005
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Title: 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2005)
Place of Event: Washington, DC, USA
Start-/End Date: 2005-11-12 - 2005-11-16

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Title: 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Neuroscience 2005)
Source Genre: Proceedings
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: 689.17 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -