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  Linking physics with physiology in TMS: A sphere field model to determine the cortical stimulation site in TMS

Thielscher, A., & Kammer, T. (2002). Linking physics with physiology in TMS: A sphere field model to determine the cortical stimulation site in TMS. NeuroImage, 17(3), 1117-1130. doi:10.1006/nimg.2002.1282.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-E0A2-A Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-81A6-D
Genre: Journal Article

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Thielscher, A, Author              
Kammer, T1, 2, 3, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497797              
2Former Department Comparative Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497800              
3Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497794              

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 Abstract: A fundamental problem of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is determining the site and size of the stimulated cortical area. In the motor system, the most common procedure for this is motor mapping. The obtained two-dimensional distribution of coil positions with associated muscle responses is used to calculate a center of gravity on the skull. However, even in motor mapping the exact stimulation site on the cortex is not known and only rough estimates of its size are possible. We report a new method which combines physiological measurements with a physical model used to predict the electric field induced by the TMS coil. In four subjects motor responses in a small hand muscle were mapped with 9–13 stimulation sites at the head perpendicular to the central sulcus in order to keep the induced current direction constant in a given cortical region of interest. Input–output functions from these head locations were used to determine stimulator intensities that elicit half-maximal muscle responses. Based on these stimulator intensities the field distribution on the individual cortical surface was calculated as rendered from anatomical MR data. The region on the cortical surface in which the different stimulation sites produced the same electric field strength (minimal variance, 4.2 ± 0.8%.) was determined as the most likely stimulation site on the cortex. In all subjects, it was located at the lateral part of the hand knob in the motor cortex. Comparisons of model calculations with the solutions obtained in this manner reveal that the stimulated cortex area innervating the target muscle is substantially smaller than the size of the electric field induced by the coil. Our results help to resolve fundamental questions raised by motor mapping studies as well as motor threshold measurements.

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 Dates: 2002-11
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: BibTex Citekey: 1592
DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1282
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Title: NeuroImage
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Orlando, FL : Academic Press
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 17 (3) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 1117 - 1130 Identifier: ISSN: 1053-8119
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922650166