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  Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos

Vidavsky, N., Addadi, S., Mahamid, J., Shimoni, E., Ben-Ezra, D., Shpigel, M., et al. (2014). Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111(1), 39-44. doi:10.1073/pnas.1312833110.

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 Creators:
Vidavsky, Netta1, Author
Addadi, Sefi1, Author
Mahamid, Julia2, Author              
Shimoni, Eyal1, Author
Ben-Ezra, David1, Author
Shpigel, Muki1, Author
Weiner, Steve1, Author
Addadi, Lia1, Author
Affiliations:
1external, ou_persistent22              
2Baumeister, Wolfgang / Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1565142              

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Free keywords: SKELETON FORMATION; SPICULE FORMATION; PRECURSOR PHASE; CRYSTAL-GROWTH; CARBONATE; TRANSFORMATION; BIOMINERALIZATION; ZEBRAFISH; PHOSPHATE; MORPHOGENESISbiomineralization; mineralization pathway; sea urchin embryonic spicule; transient precursor mineral phase; intracellular mineral deposition;
 Abstract: Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. We reconstructed various stages of the formation pathway of calcium carbonate from calcium ions in sea water to mineral deposition and integration into the forming spicules. Monitoring calcium uptake with the fluorescent dye calcein shows that calcium ions first penetrate the embryo and later are deposited intracellularly. Surprisingly, calcium carbonate deposits are distributed widely all over the embryo, including in the primary mesenchyme cells and in the surface epithelial cells. Using cryo-SEM, we show that the intracellular calcium carbonate deposits are contained in vesicles of diameter 0.5-1.5 mu m. Using the newly developed airSEM, which allows direct correlation between fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we confirmed the presence of solid calcium carbonate in the vesicles. This mineral phase appears as aggregates of 20-30-nm nanospheres, consistent with amorphous calcium carbonate. The aggregates finally are introduced into the spicule compartment, where they integrate into the growing spicule.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2014
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 6
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: ISI: 000329350700035
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312833110
 Degree: -

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Title: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: 2101 CONSTITUTION AVE NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20418 USA : NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 111 (1) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 39 - 44 Identifier: ISSN: 0027-8424