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  In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens

Franke, F., Rahn, A. K., Dittmar, J., Erin, N., Rieger, J. K., Haase, D., et al. (2014). In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36(1), 130-140. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0015-8A55-6 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0015-8A57-2
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Franke, Frederik, Author
Rahn, Anna K., Author
Dittmar, Janine, Author
Erin, Noémie1, Author              
Rieger, Jennifer K., Author
Haase, David, Author
Samonte-Padilla, Irene E.2, Author              
Lange, Joseph, Author
Jakobsen, Per J., Author
Hermida, Miguel, Author
Fernández, Carlos, Author
Kurtz, Joachim, Author
Bakker, Theo C.M., Author
Reusch, Thorsten B.H., Author
Kalbe, Martin1, Author              
Scharsack, Jörn P., Author
Affiliations:
1Research Group Parasitology, Department Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society, ou_1445643              
2Department Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society, ou_1445634              

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Free keywords: parasite antigens; in vitro leukocyte response; local adaptation; Gasterosteus aculeatus; Schistocephalus solidus
 Abstract: Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. Generalist parasites, infective for a number of host species, might be unable to adapt optimally to the immune system of a certain host species, while specialist parasites might display high levels of adaptation to a particular host species. The degree of adaptations may further differ between sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations. Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). In vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to S. solidus antigens from six European populations, with S. solidus prevalence from <1% to 66% were tested in a fully crossed experimental design. Leukocyte cultures were analysed by means of flow cytometry and a chemiluminescence assay to quantify respiratory burst activity. We detected decreasing magnitudes of in vitro responses to antigens from generalist to specialist parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. Generalist parasites seem to maintain their ability to infect different host species at the costs of relatively higher immunogenicity compared to specialist parasites. In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. Antigens from Norwegian (prevalence 30e50%) and Spanish (40e66%) S. solidus induced generally higher in vitro responses compared to S. solidus from two German (<1%) populations. Likewise, leukocytes from stickleback populations with a high S. solidus prevalence showed higher in vitro responses to S. solidus antigens compared to populations with low S. solidus prevalence. This suggests a rather low degree of local adaptation in S. solidus populations, which might be due to high gene flow among populations because of their extremely mobile final hosts, fish-eating birds.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2013-10-182013-07-222013-10-212013-10-292014-01
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019
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Title: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Academic Press
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 36 (1) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 130 - 140 Identifier: ISSN: 1050-4648 (print)
ISSN: 1095-9947 (online)
CoNE: /journals/resource/954922650162