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Computer Science, Data Structures and Algorithms, cs.DS,Computer Science, Discrete Mathematics, cs.DM
Abstract:
The Steiner Multicut problem asks, given an undirected graph G, terminals
sets T1,...,Tt $\subseteq$ V(G) of size at most p, and an integer k, whether
there is a set S of at most k edges or nodes s.t. of each set Ti at least one
pair of terminals is in different connected components of G \ S. This problem
generalizes several graph cut problems, in particular the Multicut problem (the
case p = 2), which is fixed-parameter tractable for the parameter k [Marx and
Razgon, Bousquet et al., STOC 2011].
We provide a dichotomy of the parameterized complexity of Steiner Multicut.
That is, for any combination of k, t, p, and the treewidth tw(G) as constant,
parameter, or unbounded, and for all versions of the problem (edge deletion and
node deletion with and without deletable terminals), we prove either that the
problem is fixed-parameter tractable or that the problem is hard (W[1]-hard or
even (para-)NP-complete). We highlight that:
- The edge deletion version of Steiner Multicut is fixed-parameter tractable
for the parameter k+t on general graphs (but has no polynomial kernel, even on
trees). The algorithm relies on several new structural lemmas, which decompose
the Steiner cut into important separators and minimal s-t cuts, and which only
hold for the edge deletion version of the problem.
- In contrast, both node deletion versions of Steiner Multicut are W[1]-hard
for the parameter k+t on general graphs.
- All versions of Steiner Multicut are W[1]-hard for the parameter k, even
when p=3 and the graph is a tree plus one node. Hence, the results of Marx and
Razgon, and Bousquet et al. do not generalize to Steiner Multicut.
Since we allow k, t, p, and tw(G) to be any constants, our characterization
includes a dichotomy for Steiner Multicut on trees (for tw(G) = 1), and a
polynomial time versus NP-hardness dichotomy (by restricting k,t,p,tw(G) to
constant or unbounded).