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  Chapter One – Amino Acid Secondary Transporters: Toward a Common Transport Mechanism

Schweikhard, E. S., & Ziegler, C. M. (2012). Chapter One – Amino Acid Secondary Transporters: Toward a Common Transport Mechanism. Current Topics in Membranes, 70, 1-28. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394316-3.00001-6.

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 Creators:
Schweikhard, Eva S.1, Author           
Ziegler, Christine M.1, Author           
Affiliations:
1Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max Planck Society, ou_2068291              

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Free keywords: Alternating-access mechanism; Amino acid transport; Antiport; Symport; Solute carrier family
 Abstract: Solute carriers (SLC) that transport amino acids are key players in health and diseases in humans. Their prokaryotic relatives are often involved in essential physiological processes in microorganisms, e.g. in homeostasis and acidic/osmotic stress response. High-resolution X-ray structures of the sequence-unrelated amino acid transporters unraveled a striking structural similarity between carriers, which were formerly assigned to different families. The highly conserved fold is characterized by two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices each and indicates common mechanistic transport concepts if not an evolutionary link among a large number of amino acid transporters. Therefore, these transporters are classified now into the structural amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily (APCS). The APCS includes among others the mammalian SLC6 transporters and the heterodimeric SLC7/SLC3 transporters. However, it has to be noted that the APCS is not limited entirely to amino acid transporters but contains also transporters for, e.g. amino acid derivatives and sugars. For instance, the betaine-choline-carnitine transporter family of bacterial activity-regulated Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled symporters for glycine betaine and choline is also part of this second largest structural superfamily. The APCS fold provides different possibilities to transport the same amino acid. Arginine can be transported by an H(+)-coupled symport or by antiport mechanism in exchange against agmatine for example. The convergence of the mechanistic concept of transport under comparable physiological conditions allows speculating if structurally unexplored amino acid transporters, e.g. the members of the SLC36 and SLC38 family, belong to the APCS, too. In the kidney, which is an organ that depends critically on the regulated amino acid transport, these different SLC transporters have to work together to account for proper function. Here, we will summarize the basic concepts of Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled amino acid symport and amino acid-product antiport in the light of the respective physiological requirements.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2012-11-222012
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 28
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: eDoc: 668940
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394316-3.00001-6
 Degree: -

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Title: Current Topics in Membranes
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
Affiliations:
Publ. Info: San Diego : Academic Press
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 70 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 1 - 28 Identifier: ISSN: 1063-5823
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954928523872