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  Sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy setup for pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources

Shavorskiy, A., Neppl, S., Slaughter, D. S., Cryan, J. P., Siefermann, K. R., Weise, F., et al. (2014). Sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy setup for pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(9): 093102. doi:10.1063/1.4894208.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0024-B284-1 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002A-E134-0
Genre: Journal Article

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2014
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© American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894208 (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Shavorskiy, Andrey1, Author
Neppl, Stefan2, Author
Slaughter, Daniel S.1, Author
Cryan, James P.2, Author
Siefermann, Katrin R.2, Author
Weise, Fabian2, Author
Lin, Ming-Fu2, Author
Bacellar, Camila2, Author
Ziemkiewicz, Michael P.2, Author
Zegkinoglou, Ioannis1, Author
Fraund, Matthew W.2, Author
Khurmi, Champak2, Author
Hertlein, Marcus P.3, Author
Wright, Travis W.2, Author
Huse, Nils2, 4, 5, Author              
Schoenlein, Robert W.2, Author
Tyliszczak, Tolek3, Author
Coslovich, Giacomo6, Author
Robinson, Joseph6, 7, Author
Kaindl, Robert A.6, Author
Rude, Bruce S.1, AuthorÖlsner, Andreas8, AuthorMähl, Sven9, AuthorBluhm, Hendrik1, AuthorGessner, Oliver2, Author more..
Affiliations:
1Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA, ou_persistent22              
2Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA, ou_persistent22              
3Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA, ou_persistent22              
4Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society, ou_1938289              
5University of Hamburg, External Organizations, ou_2035287              
6Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA, ou_persistent22              
7SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA, ou_persistent22              
8Surface Concept GmbH, 55124 Mainz, Germany, ou_persistent22              
9SPECS Surface Nano Analysis GmbH, 13355 Berlin, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Time resolved spectroscopy; Time of flight mass spectrometry; Pump probe experiments; X-ray detectors
 Abstract: An apparatus for sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies with pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources is presented. A differentially pumped hemispherical electron analyzer is equipped with a delay-line detector that simultaneously records the position and arrival time of every single electron at the exit aperture of the hemisphere with ∼0.1 mm spatial resolution and ∼150 ps temporal accuracy. The kinetic energies of the photoelectrons are encoded in the hit positions along the dispersive axis of the two-dimensional detector. Pump-probe time-delays are provided by the electron arrival times relative to the pump pulse timing. An average time-resolution of (780 ± 20) ps (FWHM) is demonstrated for a hemisphere pass energy Ep = 150 eV and an electron kinetic energy range KE = 503–508 eV. The time-resolution of the setup is limited by the electron time-of-flight (TOF) spread related to the electron trajectory distribution within the analyzer hemisphere and within the electrostatic lens system that images the interaction volume onto the hemisphere entrance slit. The TOF spread for electrons with KE = 430 eV varies between ∼9 ns at a pass energy of 50 eV and ∼1 ns at pass energies between 200 eV and 400 eV. The correlation between the retarding ratio and the TOF spread is evaluated by means of both analytical descriptions of the electron trajectories within the analyzer hemisphere and computer simulations of the entire trajectories including the electrostatic lens system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the by far dominant contribution to the TOF spread is acquired within the hemisphere. However, both experiment and computer simulations show that the lens system indirectly affects the time resolution of the setup to a significant extent by inducing a strong dependence of the angular spread of electron trajectories entering the hemisphere on the retarding ratio. The scaling of the angular spread with the retarding ratio can be well approximated by applying Liouville's theorem of constant emittance to the electron trajectories inside the lens system. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by characterizing the laser fluence-dependent transient surface photovoltage response of a laser-excited Si(100) sample.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2014-07-312014-08-182014-09-022014-09
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 8
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1063/1.4894208
BibTex Citekey: :/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/9/10.1063/1.4894208
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Title: Review of Scientific Instruments
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Melville, NY : AIP Publishing
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 85 (9) Sequence Number: 093102 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0034-6748
CoNE: /journals/resource/991042742033452