Help Privacy Policy Disclaimer
  Advanced SearchBrowse


  Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation: A consensus paper

Grimaldi, G., Argyropoulos, G. P., Böhringer, A., Cenik, P., Edwards, M. J., Ferrucci, R., et al. (2014). Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation: A consensus paper. The Cerebellum, 13(1), 121-138. doi:10.1007/s12311-013-0514-7.

Item is


show Files




Grimaldi, G.1, Author
Argyropoulos, G. P.2, Author
Böhringer, Andreas3, 4, Author           
Cenik, P.5, Author
Edwards, M. J.6, Author
Ferrucci, R.7, 8, Author
Galea, J. M.9, Author
Groiss, S. J.10, Author
Hiraoka, K.11, Author
Kassavetis, P.6, Author
Lesage, E.9, Author
Manto, M.1, 12, Author
Miall, R. C.9, Author
Priori, A.7, 8, Author
Sadnicka, A.6, Author
Ugawa, Y.13, Author
Ziemann, U.14, Author
1Department of Movement Studies, Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium, ou_persistent22              
2Brain, Action and Cognition Lab, Department of Psychology, University of London, United Kingdom, ou_persistent22              
3Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634549              
4Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany, ou_persistent22              
5Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, ou_persistent22              
6Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, United Kingdom, ou_persistent22              
7Center for Neurostimulation, Neurotechnology and Movement Disorders, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy, ou_persistent22              
8Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milano–Bicocca, Italy, ou_persistent22              
9School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, ou_persistent22              
10Centre for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, Department of Neurology, Institute for Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany, ou_persistent22              
11School of Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Osaka Prefecture University, Habikino, Japan, ou_persistent22              
12Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Brussels, Belgium, ou_persistent22              
13Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Japan, ou_persistent22              
14Department of Neurology and Stroke, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              


Free keywords: Cerebellum; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Direct current stimulation; Anodal; Cathodal; Motor adaptation; Excitability; Cerebellar inhibition; Paired associative stimulation; Vision; Language; Predictions; Motor surround inhibition; Working memory; Semantic associations; Ataxia
 Abstract: The field of neurostimulation of the cerebellum either with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; single pulse or repetitive (rTMS)) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; anodal or cathodal) is gaining popularity in the scientific community, in particular because these stimulation techniques are non-invasive and provide novel information on cerebellar functions. There is a consensus amongst the panel of experts that both TMS and tDCS can effectively influence cerebellar functions, not only in the motor domain, with effects on visually guided tracking tasks, motor surround inhibition, motor adaptation and learning, but also for the cognitive and affective operations handled by the cerebrocerebellar circuits. Verbal working memory, semantic associations and predictive language processing are amongst these operations. Both TMS and tDCS modulate the connectivity between the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex, tuning cerebellar excitability. Cerebellar TMS is an effective and valuable method to evaluate the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop functions and for the study of the pathophysiology of ataxia. In most circumstances, DCS induces a polarity-dependent site-specific modulation of cerebellar activity. Paired associative stimulation of the cerebello-dentatothalamo- M1 pathway can induce bidirectional long-term spike-timing-dependent plasticity-like changes of corticospinal excitability. However, the panel of experts considers that several important issues still remain unresolved and require further research. In particular, the role of TMS in promoting cerebellar plasticity is not established. Moreover, the exact positioning of electrode stimulation and the duration of the after effects of tDCS remain unclear. Future studies are required to better define how DCS over particular regions of the cerebellum affects individual cerebellar symptoms, given the topographical organization of cerebellar symptoms. The long-term neural consequences of non-invasive cerebellar modulation are also unclear. Although there is an agreement that the clinical applications in cerebellar disorders are likely numerous, it is emphasized that rigorous large-scale clinical trials are missing. Further studies should be encouraged to better clarify the role of using non-invasive neurostimulation techniques over the cerebellum in motor, cognitive and psychiatric rehabilitation strategies.


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2013-08-142014-02
 Publication Status: Issued
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1007/s12311-013-0514-7
PMID: 23943521
 Degree: -



Legal Case


Project information


Source 1

Title: The Cerebellum
Source Genre: Journal
Publ. Info: New York, NY : Springer
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 13 (1) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 121 - 138 Identifier: Other: 1473-4222
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1473-4222