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  Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping

Santhanam, R., Luu, V. T., Weinhold, A., Goldberg, J. K., Oh, Y., & Baldwin, I. T. (2015). Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(36), E5013-E5020. doi:10.1073/pnas.1505765112.

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 Creators:
Santhanam, Rakesh1, 2, Author              
Luu, Van Thi1, 2, Author              
Weinhold, Arne1, Author              
Goldberg, Jay Keche1, Author              
Oh, Youngjoo1, 2, Author              
Baldwin, Ian Thomas1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department of Molecular Ecology, Prof. I. T. Baldwin, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, ou_24029              
2IMPRS on Ecological Interactions, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, Jena, DE, ou_421900              

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 Abstract: Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant’s native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium–Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

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 Dates: 20152015-08-252015
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: Other: ITB502
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1505765112
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Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  Other : Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, DC : National Academy of Sciences
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 112 (36) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: E5013 - E5020 Identifier: ISSN: 0027-8424
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925427230