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  General habit propensity relates to the sensation seeking subdomain of impulsivity but not obesity

Dietrich, A., de Wit, S., & Horstmann, A. (2016). General habit propensity relates to the sensation seeking subdomain of impulsivity but not obesity. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10: 213. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00213.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002B-A67A-2 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-1E85-6
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Dietrich, Anja1, Author              
de Wit, Sanne2, Author
Horstmann, Annette1, 3, 4, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634549              
2Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
3Integrated Research and Treatment Center Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, Germany, ou_persistent22              
4Collaborative Research Center Obesity Mechanisms, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Obesity; BMI; Impulsivity; Sensation seeking; Habitual; Goal-directed; Instrumental discrimination
 Abstract: According to dual-system theory, instrumental learning and performance depend on the balance between goal-directed and habitual action control. Overreliance on habits has been argued to characterize clinical conditions such as drug addiction or obsessivecompulsive disorder as well as obesity and excessive impulsivity. A tendency towards habitual action control in obesity has already been indicated in the food domain. However, impairments might not be restricted to eating behavior. This has been suggested by domain-general obesity-associated disturbances in executive function as well as alterations in corticostriatal circuits underlying the goal-directed and habitual systems. In this study we examined the balance of goal-directed and habitual action control in a sample of normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants (n=105) using the slips-of-action test in a non-food context. We tested for continuous or group-based associations between body weight status (BMI) and the devaluation sensitivity index (DSI), a parameter representing the balance of the goal-directed and habitual systems in action control. As personality differences in the domain of impulsivity might affect this relationship, we also examined whether the interaction between BMI and self-reported impulsivity, based on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, was related to the DSI. In addition to that, we tested for direct, i.e., weight status independent, relationships between UPPS subdomains of impulsivity and the DSI. We failed to find evidence for a relationship between weight status and sensitivity to devaluation as indexed by the DSI. However, independent of weight status, we observed lower sensitivity to devaluation in sensation seekers, a subtype of impulsivity. To conclude, behavioral flexibility in the sense of disturbances in the balance between the habitual and goal-directed systems seems to be unaffected by weight status in a non-food context. Consequently, stimuli and behavior might not be generally excessively linked in overweight or obesity. However, according to ceiling effects we cannot rule out subtle effects the paradigm was not able to disentangle. Further, future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific subtypes of obesity (e.g., food addiction). The indicated habit propensity in sensation seekers may account for previous reports of weak avoidance behavior and risky decision making.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2016-10-072016-08-152016-10-202016-11-08
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00213
PMID: 27877117
PMC: PMC5099246
Other: eCollection 2016.
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Title: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
  Abbreviation : Front Behav Neurosci
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 10 Sequence Number: 213 Start / End Page: - Identifier: Other: 1662-5153
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1662-5153