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  Implicit and explicit statistical learning of tone sequences across spectral shifts

Daikoku, T., Yatomi, Y., & Yumoto, M. (2014). Implicit and explicit statistical learning of tone sequences across spectral shifts. Neuropsychologia, 63, 194-204. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.028.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002C-0DCA-2 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-7D89-7
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Daikoku, Tatsuya1, Author              
Yatomi, Yutaka1, Author
Yumoto, Masato1, Author
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1Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Implicit and explicit learning; Statistical learning; Markov process; Relative pitch; Magnetoencephalography
 Abstract: We investigated how the statistical learning of auditory sequences is reflected in neuromagnetic responses in implicit and explicit learning conditions. Complex tones with fundamental frequencies (F0s) in a five-tone equal temperament were generated by a formant synthesizer. The tones were subsequently ordered with the constraint that the probability of the forthcoming tone was statistically defined (80% for one tone; 5% for the other four) by the latest two successive tones (second-order Markov chains). The tone sequence consisted of 500 tones and 250 successive tones with a relative shift of F0s based on the same Markov transitional matrix. In explicit and implicit learning conditions, neuromagnetic responses to the tone sequence were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. The temporal profiles of the N1m responses to the tones with higher and lower transitional probabilities were compared. In the explicit learning condition, the N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased compared with responses to tones with lower transitional probability in the latter half of the 500-tone sequence. Furthermore, this difference was retained even after the F0s were relatively shifted. In the implicit learning condition, N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased only for the 250 tones following the relative shift of F0s. The delayed detection of learning effects across the sound-spectral shift in the implicit condition may imply that learning may progress earlier in explicit learning conditions than in implicit learning conditions. The finding that the learning effects were retained across spectral shifts regardless of the learning modality indicates that relative pitch processing may be an essential ability for humans.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2014-08-212014-03-132014-08-222014-09-012014-10
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.028
PMID: 25192632
Other: Epub 2014
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Title: Neuropsychologia
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 63 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 194 - 204 Identifier: ISSN: 0028-3932
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925428258