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  Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus

Fischer, M. G., & Hackl, T. (2016). Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus. Nature, 540(7632), 288-291. doi:10.1038/nature20593.

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 Creators:
Fischer, Matthias G.1, Author              
Hackl, Thomas1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Max Planck Society, ou_1497700              

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Free keywords: Coevolution ; Virus-host interactions
 Abstract: Endogenous viral elements are increasingly found in eukaryotic genomes1, yet little is known about their origins, dynamics, or function. Here we provide a compelling example of a DNA virus that readily integrates into a eukaryotic genome where it acts as an inducible antiviral defence system. We found that the virophage mavirus2, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV)3, integrates at multiple sites within the nuclear genome of the marine protozoan Cafeteria roenbergensis4. The endogenous mavirus is structurally and genetically similar to eukaryotic DNA transposons and endogenous viruses of the Maverick/Polinton family5, 6, 7. Provirophage genes are not constitutively expressed, but are specifically activated by superinfection with CroV, which induces the production of infectious mavirus particles. Virophages can inhibit the replication of mimivirus-like giant viruses and an anti-viral protective effect of provirophages on their hosts has been hypothesized2, 8. We find that provirophage-carrying cells are not directly protected from CroV; however, lysis of these cells releases infectious mavirus particles that are then able to suppress CroV replication and enhance host survival during subsequent rounds of infection. The microbial host–parasite interaction described here involves an altruistic aspect and suggests that giant-virus-induced activation of provirophages might be ecologically relevant in natural protist populations.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2016-06-082016-11-022016-12-072016-12-08
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 4
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Degree: -

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Title: Nature
  Abbreviation : Nature
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Nature Publishing Group
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 540 (7632) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 288 - 291 Identifier: ISSN: 0028-0836
CoNE: /journals/resource/954925427238