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  Social Movements and Institutional Change: The Pro-Indigenous Struggle for Land Tenure and Citizenship in Brazil (1968-2016)

Alfinito Vieira, A. C. (2016). Social Movements and Institutional Change: The Pro-Indigenous Struggle for Land Tenure and Citizenship in Brazil (1968-2016). PhD Thesis, University of Cologne, Cologne. doi:10.17617/2.2385250.

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Alfinito Vieira, Ana Carolina1, Author              
1International Max Planck Research School on the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, MPI for the Study of Societies, Max Planck Society, ou_1214550              


Free keywords: social movements; institutional change; indigenous movement
 Abstract: Based on a analysis of a multi-level and inter-sectoral trajectory of pro-indigenous mobilization in Brazil, the present study sets out to examine how social movements contribute to gradual and long-term processes of institutional change. To do so, it draws on social movement theory, pragmatist institutional theory and cultural sociology and develops a dynamic model of mobilization and institutional change that foregrounds the organization of society within multiple and partially overlapping institutional sectors and emphasizes the dynamic and recursive interactions between movements and ever-shifting institutional contexts of action. This model is deployed in the analysis of a long-term trajectory of mobilization over indigenous land tenure and citizenship rights in Brazil from 1968 until 2016. The trajectory is composed of seven episodes, each of which is characterized by a constellation of repertoires, sites and targets of contention. I analyze the institutional, organizational and cultural outcomes of these episodes, examining how they add up to landmark moments in which institutional contexts of mobilization change significantly and mark a transition between periods of contention. By examining and comparing across these episodes, I identify two social mechanisms, here understood as recurrent social processes linking initial conditions to outcomes, which were central for the movement's ability to influence incremental and cumulative instances of institutional change: (a) the formation of inter-sectoral networks of contention and (b) institutional framing. I use the term inter-sectoral network formation to refer to processes through which ties of cooperation and mobilization are constructed and activated by actors situated across institutional sectors in the midst of contention. By incorporating different institutional repertoires into the movement and opening up multiple channels of claim-making, this mechanism increases the responsive capacity and the resilience of movements vis-à-vis shifting contexts of action. By institutional framing, I refer to the collective and public processes through which activists attribute and dispute the meaning of society-wide institutional elements that are relevant for their goals. By framing institutions, many of which ensue from previous episodes of contention, movements contribute to institutional innovation and produce a sense of continuity between different episodes, periods and sectors of mobilization.


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2016-12-152017-01-232018-02-072016
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 383
 Publishing info: Cologne : University of Cologne
 Table of Contents: Acknowledgments
Abbreviations and acronyms
List of tables, maps, plots, figures and timelines
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Mobilization and social transformation
1.2 Long-term and inter-sectoral: Pro-indigenous mobilization in Brazil
1.3 Studying land tenure and identity
1.4 Research methods and data sources
1.5 Implications of this study
1.6 Looking ahead

Part 1: Setting the stage
Chapter 2. Towards a dynamic model of mobilization and institutional change
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Multi-sited contention: Institutional sectors and inter-sectoral regimes
Existing approaches to the sites of contention
Society as a multi-sectoral and multi-level landscape
Mobilization against inter-sectoral institutional arrangements
2.3 Claim-making and institutional engagement across institutional sectors
Institutional repertoires and sectoral embeddedness
Inter-sectoral movement networks
2.4 Analyzing the outcomes of social mobilization
Existing approaches to social movement outcomes
A dynamic model of mobilization and social change
Outcomes and landmark moments
Chapter 3. Inter-sectoral convergence and Terena resistance in the situation of the reservation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The situation of the reservation: Territorialization and land disputes among the Terena Indians
Dispossession and captivity: Terena societies in the aftermath of the Paraguay War
The engagement of the state: Reservation and nationalization
The engagement of missionaries: Proselytism and religious conversion
The engagement of anthropologists: Theorizing the process of Terena assimilation
3.3 Resistance and contestation in the situation of the reservation
3.4 Beyond the reservation

Part 2: Intra-sectoral mobilization and the generation of dissonance in the field of indigenism (1968-1977)
Chapter 4. Transnational journalists and the passing of the Statute of the Indian
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Figueiredo Report and mobilization of transnational journalists
4.3 Institutional change: The passing of the Statute of the Indian
Chapter 5. Anthropologists, missionaries and the emergence of new organizations and practices
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Critical anthropologists against colonial anthropology
5.3 Struggling within the Church: Constructing a new missionary engagement
5.4 First period of pro-indigenous mobilization: Incremental outcomes and first landmark moment

Part 3: Inter-sectoral mobilization and the institutionalization of movement projects (1978-1988)
Chapter 6. Weaving together an inter-sectoral pro-indigenous movement
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Mobilizing during the abertura
6.3 The controversy of indigenous emancipation: Weaving together an inter-sectoral social movement
6.4 Sustaining momentum: Mobilizing in the aftermath of the emancipation controversy
6.5 Forth episode of pro-indigenous mobilization: Patterns and incremental outcomes
Chapter 7. Inter-sectoral mobilization at the National Constitutional Assembly and the institutionalization of movement projects
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Preparing for the Constitutional Assembly
7.3 Mobilization in the Thematic Sub-Commission and Commission
7.4 The proposal of popular amendments and a split in the indigenous coordination
7.5 Unorthodox alliances: Negotiating the new constitution
7.6 Fourth episode of pro-indigenous mobilization: Patterns and incremental outcomes
7.7 Second period of mobilization: Intermediate outcomes and landmark change

Part 4: Inter-sectoral mobilization on the local level and institutional change: The Terena land disputes in MS (1999-2016)
Chapter 8. Inter-sectoral cooperation and antagonism in the reconfiguration of three Terena territories
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Precursors of mobilization: Indigenist support organizations and indigenous associations in Terena reservations (1981-1988)
8.3 The opening up of TERRASSUL and the constitution of Technical Working Groups within FUNAI
8.4 The illegitimacy of property: FUNAI's working groups and the identification of Terena territories
8.5 Continued pressure for demarcation and the consolidation of the reclaiming
8.6 Sixth episode of mobilization: patterns and incremental outcomes
Chapter 9. Mobilization across sectors and in courts: Legal activism and institutional innovation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 From mobilization to judicialization: Taking land disputes to court
9.3 Judicial responses to mobilization: Analysis of judicial decisions in possession and declaratory suits
Decisions in possession suits: Legitimating occupation
Decisions in declaratory suits: Who owns the land?
Open questions and patterns in need of explanation
9.4 Legal strategies of mobilization: The incremental de-legitimation of private property (2005-2011)
Unsettling private property rights
Making history: Historical and anthropological evidence in the (de)construction of property rights
The de-legitimation of private property
9.5 Shifting contexts, new forms of mobilization and institutional innovation
Shifting contexts of mobilization: The Temporal Mark Doctrine and the de-legitimation of land demarcation procedures
Shifting mobilization: The Terena Assembly and new forms of claim-making
Institutional innovation: New forms of possession and ownership
9.6 Third period of pro-indigenous mobilization: patterns and incremental outcomes
Chapter 10. Conclusion
10.1 Shifting institutional engagements: The contentious path from the reservation to the reclaiming
10.2 Inter-sectoral contentious network formation
10.3 Institutional framing
10.4 Theoretical contributions of study
10.5 Avenues for future reserach
Annex I: Research Methods
Annex II: Administrative demarcation procedure flowchart
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.17617/2.2385250
ISBN: 978-3-946416-17-3
URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:38-79972
URI: http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/7997
 Degree: PhD



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Title: Studies on the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy. IMPRS-SPCE
Source Genre: Series
International Max Planck Research School on the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, MPI for the Study of Societies, Max Planck Society, Editor              
Publ. Info: -
Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: -