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  Mass releases of genetically modified insects in area-wide pest control programs and their impact on organic farmers

Reeves, R. G., & Phillipson, M. (2017). Mass releases of genetically modified insects in area-wide pest control programs and their impact on organic farmers. Sustainability, 9(1): su9010059. doi:10.3390/su9010059.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002D-33A7-9 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-7EE3-2
Genre: Journal Article

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http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/1/59/htm (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Reeves, R. Guy1, Author              
Phillipson, Martin, Author
Affiliations:
1Research Group Population Genetics, Department Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society, ou_1445646              

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Free keywords: organic certification; sterile insect technique; genetically modified insects; diamondback moth; Plutella xylostella; law; regulation; coexistence; GM-SIT; biotechnology
 Abstract: The mass release of irradiated insects to reduce the size of agricultural pest populations of the same species has a more than 50-year record of success. Using these techniques, insect pests can be suppressed without necessarily dispersing chemical insecticides into the environment. Ongoing release programs include the suppression of medfly at numerous locations around the globe (e.g., California, Chile and Israel) and the pink bollworm eradication program across the southern USA and northern Mexico. These, and other successful area-wide programs, encompass a large number of diverse organic farms without incident. More recently, mass release techniques have been proposed that involve the release of genetically modified insects. Given that the intentional use of genetically modified organisms by farmers will in many jurisdictions preclude organic certification, this prohibits the deliberate use of this technology by organic farmers. However, mass releases of flying insects are not generally conducted by individual farmers but are done on a regional basis, often without the explicit consent of all situated farms (frequently under the auspices of government agencies or growers' collectives). Consequently, there exists the realistic prospect of organic farms becoming involved in genetically modified insect releases as part of area-wide programs or experiments. Herein, we describe genetically modified insects engineered for mass release and examine their potential impacts on organic farmers, both intended and unintended. This is done both generally and also focusing on a hypothetical organic farm located near an approved experimental release of genetically modified (GM) diamondback moths in New York State (USA). © 2017 by the authors.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2016-10-222016-12-222017-01-012017
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3390/su9010059
BibTex Citekey: Reeves2017
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Title: Sustainability
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Basel, Switzerland : MDPI
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 9 (1) Sequence Number: su9010059 Start / End Page: - Identifier: Other: 2071-1050
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2071-1050