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  Role of Vacancy Condensation in the Formation of Voids in Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

Folger, A., Ebbinghaus, P., Erbe, A., & Scheu, C. (2017). Role of Vacancy Condensation in the Formation of Voids in Rutile TiO2 Nanowires. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(15), 13471-13479. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b01160.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-002D-C96C-4 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-6C17-D
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Folger, Alena1, Author              
Ebbinghaus, Petra2, Author              
Erbe, Andreas2, 3, Author              
Scheu, Christina1, 4, Author              
Affiliations:
1Nanoanalytics and Interfaces, Independent Max Planck Research Groups, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_2054294              
2Interface Spectroscopy, Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863358              
3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway, ou_persistent22              
4Materials Analytics, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstrasse 10, Aachen, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: SENSITIZED SOLAR-CELLS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY; ENHANCED PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY; TRANSITION-METAL OXIDES; LITHIUM ION BATTERIES; ENERGY-LOSS; 3-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION; REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY; INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY; NANOROD ARRAYS;
 Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanowire (NW) arrays are incorporated in many devices for energy conversion, energy storage, and catalysis. A common approach to fabricate these NWs is based on hydrothermal synthesis strategies. A drawback of this low-temperature method is that the NWs have a high density of defects, such as stacking faults, dislocations; and oxygen vacancies. These defects compromise the performance of devices. Here, we report a postgrowth thermal, annealing procedure to remove these lattice defects and propose a mechanism to explain the underlying changes in the structure of the NWs. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study including in situ observation at elevated temperatures reveals a two-stage process. Additional spectroscopic analyses and X-ray diffraction, experiments clarify the underlying mechanisms. In an early, low-temperature stage, the as-grown mesocrystalline NW converts to a single crystal by the dehydration of surface-bound OH groups. At temperatures above 500 degrees C , condensation of oxygen vacancies takes place, which leads to the fabrication of NWs with internal voids. These voids are faceted and covered with Ti3+-rich amorphous TiOx.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2017-04-19
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 9
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: ISI: 000399965700062
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b01160
 Degree: -

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Title: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
  Abbreviation : ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, DC : American Chemical Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 9 (15) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 13471 - 13479 Identifier: ISSN: 1944-8244
CoNE: /journals/resource/1944-8244