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  Cold Ion Outflow Modulated by the Solar Wind Energy Input and Tilt of the Geomagnetic Dipole

Li, K., Wei, Y., André, M., Eriksson, A., Haaland, S., Kronberg, E. A., et al. (2017). Cold Ion Outflow Modulated by the Solar Wind Energy Input and Tilt of the Geomagnetic Dipole. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 122(10), 10658-10668. doi:10.1002/2017JA024642.

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 Creators:
Li, Kun, Author
Wei, Y., Author
André, M., Author
Eriksson, A., Author
Haaland, Stein1, Author              
Kronberg, Elena A.1, Author              
Nilsson, H., Author
Maes, Lukas1, Author              
Rong, Z. J., Author
Wan, W. X., Author
Affiliations:
1Department Planets and Comets, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society, ou_1832288              

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 MPIS_GROUPS: Planetary Plasmas
 MPIS_PROJECTS: Cluster
 Abstract: The solar wind energy input into the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system drives ionospheric outflow, which plays an important role in both the magnetospheric dynamics and evolution of the atmosphere. However, little is known about the cold ion outflow with energies lower than a few tens of eV, as the direct measurement of cold ions is difficult because a spacecraft gains a positive electric charge due to the photoemission effect, which prevents cold ions from reaching the onboard detectors. A recent breakthrough in the measurement technique using Cluster spacecraft revealed that cold ions dominate the ion population in the magnetosphere. This new technique yields a comprehensive data set containing measurements of the velocities and densities of cold ions for the years 2001–2010. In this paper, this data set is used to analyze the cold ion outflow from the ionosphere. We found that about 0.1% of the solar wind energy input is transformed to the kinetic energy of cold ion outflow at the topside ionosphere. We also found that the geomagnetic dipole tilt can significantly affect the density of cold ion outflow, modulating the outflow rate of cold ion kinetic energy. These results give us clues to study the evolution of ionospheric outflow with changing global magnetic field and solar wind condition in the history.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2018-01-172017
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024642
 Degree: -

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Title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Source Genre: Journal
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Affiliations:
Publ. Info: Washington, D.C. : American Geophysical Union
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 122 (10) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 10658 - 10668 Identifier: ISSN: 0148-0227
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/991042728714264