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  Forward genetics approach reveals host genotype-dependent importance of accessory chromosomes in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

Habig, M., Quade, J., & Stukenbrock, E. H. (2017). Forward genetics approach reveals host genotype-dependent importance of accessory chromosomes in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. mBio, 8(6): e01919-17. doi:10.1128/mBio.01919-17.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-3E96-2 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-3E97-1
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Habig, Michael, Author
Quade, Jakob, Author
Stukenbrock, Eva Holtgrewe1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Max Planck Fellow Group Environmental Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society, ou_2068284              

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Free keywords: beta tubulin; carbendazim, aneuploidy; Article; chromosome; chromosome loss; controlled study; correlational study; fungal genetics; fungal strain; fungal virulence; fungus culture; fungus isolation; fungus mutant; gel electrophoresis; genotype; in vitro study; karyotyping; mitosis; molecular interaction; nonhuman; phenotypic variation; priority journal; protein assembly; whole genome sequencing; wild type; Zymoseptoria tritici
 Abstract: The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addressed the functional relevance of eight accessory chromosomes in reference isolate IPO323. We induced chromosome losses by inhibiting the β-tubulin assembly during mitosis using carbendazim and generated several independent isogenic strains, each lacking one of the accessory chromosomes. We confirmed chromosome losses by electrophoretic karyotyping and whole-genome sequencing. To assess the importance of the individual chromosomes during host infection, we performed in planta assays comparing disease development results in wild-type and chromosome mutant strains. Loss of the accessory chromosomes 14, 16, 18, 19, and 21 resulted in increased virulence on wheat cultivar Runal but not on cultivars Obelisk, Titlis, and Riband. Moreover, some accessory chromosomes affected the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy as strains lacking accessory chromosomes 14, 18, 19, and 21 showed a significantly earlier onset of necrosis than the wild type on the Runal cultivar. In general, we observed that the timing of the lifestyle switch affects the fitness of Z. tritici. Taking the results together, this study was the first to use a forward-genetics approach to demonstrate a cultivar-dependent functional relevance of the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici during host infection. IMPORTANCE Zymoseptoria tritici is a prominent fungal pathogen of wheat of worldwide distribution. This fungus shows a remarkable genome organization, with a large number of chromosomes that are present in only some isolates and therefore considered to be “accessory” chromosomes. To date, the function of these accessory chromosomes in Z. tritici has been unknown, although their maintenance in the species over evolutionary times suggests a functional relevance. Here we deleted whole accessory chromosomes to test the effect of these chromosomes on host specificity and virulence of the fungus. We show for the first time that some accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici affect the fitness of the fungus during host infection in a cultivar-dependent manner. These results show that the accessory chromosomes encode host-specific virulence determinants having a negative effect on fitness. Understanding the population dynamic of the accessory chromosomes and the molecular interaction of pathogen and plant traits is crucial to improve wheatbreeding strategies. © 2017 Habig et al.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2017-10-182017-10-242017-11-282017
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01919-17
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Title: mBio
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, DC : American Society for Microbiology
Pages: 16 Volume / Issue: 8 (6) Sequence Number: e01919-17 Start / End Page: - Identifier: Other: 2150-7511
CoNE: /journals/resource/2150-7511