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  Barley yellow dwarf virus infection leads to higher chemical defence signals and lower electrophysiological reactions in susceptible compared to tolerant barley genotypes

Paulmann, M. K., Kunert, G., Zimmermann, M., Theis, N., Ludwig, A., Meichsner, D., et al. (2018). Barley yellow dwarf virus infection leads to higher chemical defence signals and lower electrophysiological reactions in susceptible compared to tolerant barley genotypes. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 145. doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.00145.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00145 (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Paulmann, Maria K.1, 2, Author              
Kunert, Grit1, Author              
Zimmermann, Matthias, Author
Theis, Nina, Author
Ludwig, Anatoli, Author
Meichsner, Doreen, Author
Oelmüller, Ralf, Author
Gershenzon, Jonathan1, Author              
Habekuß, Antje, Author
Ordon, Frank, Author
Furch, Alexandra C., Author
Will, Torsten, Author
Affiliations:
1Department of Biochemistry, Prof. J. Gershenzon, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, ou_421893              
2IMPRS on Ecological Interactions, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, Jena, DE, ou_421900              

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 Abstract: Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait. Therefore, we compared the anatomy and early defence responses of a virus susceptible to those of a virus-tolerant cultivar. One of the very early defence responses is the transmission of electrophysiological reactions. Electrophysiological reactions to BYDV infection might differ between susceptible and tolerant cultivars, since BYDV causes disintegration of sieve elements in susceptible cultivars. The structure of vascular bundles, xylem vessels and sieve elements was examined using microscopy. All three were significantly decreased in size in infected susceptible plants where the virus causes disintegration of sieve elements. This could be associated with an uncontrolled ion exchange between the sieve-element lumen and apoplast. Further, a potential reduced electrophysiological isolation would negatively affect the propagation of electrophysiological reactions. To test the influence of BYDV infection on electrophysiological reactions, electropotential waves (EPWs) induced by leaf-tip burning were recorded using aphids as bioelectrodes. EPWs in infected susceptible plants disappeared already after 10 cm in contrast to those in healthy susceptible or infected tolerant or healthy tolerant plants. Another early plant defence reaction is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a fluorescent dye, we found a significant increase in ROS content in infected susceptible plants but not in infected tolerant plants. Similar results were found for the phytohormones abscisic acid and three jasmonates. Salicylic acid levels were generally higher after BYDV infection compared to uninfected plants. Heat stimulation caused an increase in jasmonates. By shedding light on the plant defence mechanisms against BYDV, this study, provides further knowledge for breeding viral tolerant plants.

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 Dates: 2018-01-252018-03-06
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: Other: GER501
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00145
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Title: Frontiers in Plant Science
  Abbreviation : Front. Plant Sci.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Lausanne : Frontiers Media
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 9 Sequence Number: 145 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1664-462X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1664462X