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  Pathophysiological consequences of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression: Impacts on ion homeostasis, stress signaling, mitochondrial integrity, and electrical activity.

Tolö, J., Taschenberger, G., Leite, K., Stahlberg, M. A., Spehlbrink, G., Kues, J., et al. (2018). Pathophysiological consequences of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression: Impacts on ion homeostasis, stress signaling, mitochondrial integrity, and electrical activity. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 11: 49. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2018.00049.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-F4AF-8 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0000-F939-8
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Tolö, J., Author
Taschenberger, G., Author
Leite, K., Author
Stahlberg, M. A., Author
Spehlbrink, G., Author
Kues, J., Author
Munari, F., Author
Capaldi, S., Author
Becker, S.1, Author              
Zweckstetter, M.2, Author              
Dean, C., Author
Bähr, M., Author
Kügler, S., Author
Affiliations:
1Department of NMR Based Structural Biology, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_578567              
2Research Group of Protein Structure Determination using NMR, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_578571              

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Free keywords: synuclein; ATP; calcium; reactive oxygen species; thiol oxidation; apoptosis; Bcl-Xl; synchronized network activity
 Abstract: alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) is intimately linked to the etiology of Parkinson's Disease, as mutations and even subtle increases in gene dosage result in early onset of the disease. However, how this protein causes neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration is incompletely understood. We thus examined a comprehensive range of physiological parameters in cultured rat primary neurons overexpressing alpha-Syn at levels causing a slowly progressive neurodegeneration. In contradiction to earlier reports from non-neuronal assay systems we demonstrate that alpha-Syn does not interfere with essential ion handling capacities, mitochondrial capability of ATP production or basic electro-physiological properties like resting membrane potential or the general ability to generate action potentials. alpha-Syn also does not activate canonical stress kinase Signaling converging on SAPK/Jun, p38 MAPK or Erk kinases. Causative for alpha-Syn-induced neurodegeneration are mitochondrial thiol oxidation and activation of caspases downstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, leading to apoptosis-like cell death execution with some unusual aspects. We also aimed to elucidate neuroprotective strategies counteracting the pathophysiological processes caused by alpha-Syn. Neurotrophic factors, calpain inhibition and increased lysosomal protease capacity showed no protective effects against alpha-Syn overexpression. In contrast, the major watchdog of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, Bcl-Xl, was capable of almost completely preventing neuron death, but did not prevent mitochondrial thiol oxidation. Importantly, independent from the quite mono-causal induction of neurotoxicity, alpha-Syn causes diminished excitability of neurons by external stimuli and robust impairments in endogenous neuronal network activity by decreasing the frequency of action potentials generated without external stimulation. This latter finding suggests that alpha-Syn can induce neuronal dysfunction independent from its induction of neurotoxicity and might serve as an explanation for functional deficits that precede neuronal cell loss in synucleopathies like Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2018-03-07
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00049
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Title: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: 21 Volume / Issue: 11 Sequence Number: 49 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -