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  Multiscale characterization of White Etching Cracks (WEC) in a 100Cr6 bearing from a thrust bearing test rig

Danielsen, H. K., Guzmán, F. G., Dahl, K. V., Li, Y., Wu, J., Jacobs, G., et al. (2017). Multiscale characterization of White Etching Cracks (WEC) in a 100Cr6 bearing from a thrust bearing test rig. WEAR, 370-371, 73-82. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2016.11.016.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-7187-7 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-7188-6
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson1, Author              
Guzmán, Francisco Gutiérrez2, Author              
Dahl, Kristian Vinter3, Author              
Li, Yujiao4, 5, Author              
Wu, Jun6, Author              
Jacobs, Georg2, Author              
Burghardt, Gero2, Author              
Fæster, Søren1, Author              
Alimadadi, Hossein7, Author              
Goto, Shoji8, Author              
Raabe, Dierk9, Author              
Petrov, Roumen6, 10, Author              
Affiliations:
1Technical University of Denmark, Department of Wind Energy, Anker Engelunds Vej 1 B101A, 2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark, persistent22              
2RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Maschinengestaltung und Maschinenelemente, Schinkelstrasse 10, Aachen, Germany, persistent22              
3Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anker Engelunds Vej 1 B101A, 2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark, persistent22              
4Center for Interface-Dominated High Performance Materials, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780, Germany, ou_persistent22              
5Alloy Design and Thermomechanical Processing, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863383              
6Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering,Tech Lane Ghent Science, Park-Campus A, Technologiepark 903 Zwijnaarde, Ghent, Belgium, persistent22              
7Technical University of Denmark, Center of Electron Nanoscopy, Anker Engelunds Vej 1 B101A, 2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark, persistent22              
8Materials Science of Mechanical Contracts, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_2324693              
9Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863381              
10Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, CD Delft, Netherlands, persistent22              

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Free keywords: Bearings (structural); Carbides; Characterization; Computerized tomography; Cracks; Electron microscopy; Etching; Grain refinement; Grain size and shape; Martensitic steel; Microstructure; Power generation; Roller bearings; Wind turbines, Inhomogeneous structure; Microstructure characterization; Multiscale characterizations; Orientation contrast imaging; Premature bearing failure; Rolling contact fatigue; Three-dimensional cracks; X ray computerized tomography, Thrust bearings
 Abstract: A common cause for premature bearing failures in wind turbine gearboxes are the so-called White Etching Cracks (WEC). These undirected, three-dimensional cracks are bordered by regions of altered microstructure and ultimately lead to a cracking or spalling of the raceway. An accelerated WEC test was carried out on a FE8 test rig using cylindrical roller thrust bearings made of martensitic 100Cr6 steel. The resulting WECs were investigated with several characterisation techniques. Ultrasonic measurements showed the WEC were mainly located in the region of the overrolled surface in which negative slip occurs, which agrees with hypotheses based on an energetic approach for a prognosis. SEM orientation contrast imaging of the area around WEC revealed an inhomogeneous structure with varied grain sizes and a large amount of defects. Microstructure characterization around the WEA using EBSD showed significant grain refinement. Atom probe tomography showed the microstructure in the undamaged zone has a plate-like martensitic structure with carbides, while no carbides were detected in the WEA where the microstructure consisted of equiaxed 10 nm grains. A three dimensional characterisation of WEC network was successfully demonstrated with X-ray computerized tomography, showing crack interaction with unidentified inclusion-like particles. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2017-01-15
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2016.11.016
BibTex Citekey: Danielsen201773
 Degree: -

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Title: WEAR
  Other : Wear
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
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Publ. Info: Lausanne, Switzerland : Elsevier
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 370-371 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 73 - 82 Identifier: ISSN: 0043-1648
CoNE: /journals/resource/954925451857