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  Decoupling of optoelectronic properties from morphological changes in sodium treated kesterite thin film solar cells

Andres, C., Schwarz, T., Haass, S. G., Weiss, T. P., Carron, R., Caballero, R., et al. (2018). Decoupling of optoelectronic properties from morphological changes in sodium treated kesterite thin film solar cells. Solar Energy, 175, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2018.03.067.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0001-E83F-4 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-A817-6
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Andres, Christian1, Author              
Schwarz, Torsten2, Author              
Haass, Stefan G.1, Author              
Weiss, Thomas Paul3, Author              
Carron, Romain1, Author              
Caballero, Raquel4, Author              
Figi, Renato5, Author              
Schreiner, Claudia5, Author              
Bürki, Melanie5, Author              
Tiwari, Ayodhya Nath6, Author              
Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, Duebendorf, Switzerland, ou_persistent22              
2Atom Probe Tomography, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863384              
3Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland, ou_persistent22              
4Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, Madrid, Spain, ou_persistent22              
5Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, Dübendorf, Switzerland, ou_persistent22              
6Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Copper compounds; Deposition; Grain boundaries; Grain growth; Mass spectrometry; Open circuit voltage; Oxygen vacancies; Rapid thermal processing; Selenium compounds; Semiconductor doping; Sodium; Sodium compounds; Solar cells; Thin films; Tin compounds; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Zinc compounds, Acceptor concentrations; Atom probe tomography; Kesterites; Morphological changes; Optoelectronic properties; Post deposition treatment; Sodium doping; Thin films solar cells, Thin film solar cells
 Abstract: Sodium is typically used during the synthesis of kesterite thin films to enhance the performance of solar cells. As sodium tends to affect grain growth and morphology, it is difficult to analyse solely the electronic effects of sodium as dopant. To decouple the structural and electronic effects from each other, two processes were designed in this work to successfully incorporate sodium into a vacuum-processed Cu2ZnSnSe4 absorber without changing the morphology. A thin layer of NaF is deposited before precursor deposition (Pre-NaF) or after absorber synthesis to undergo a post deposition treatment (NaF-PDT). While composition and distribution of matrix elements remain unchanged, the sodium concentration is increased upon sodium treatment up to 140 ppm as measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the surface composition was not altered. Within its detection limit, sodium was not present at the absorber surface. For a Pre-NaF sample measured with atom probe tomography a sodium concentration of 30 ppm was measured in a grain, suggesting that sodium might segregate at grain boundaries. The additional sodium content in the film leads to an increased acceptor concentration, which results in improved open-circuit voltage and fill factor. © 2018 The Authors

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2018-11-15
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2018.03.067
BibTex Citekey: Andres2018
 Degree: -

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Title: Solar Energy
  Other : Solar Energy
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
Affiliations:
Publ. Info: Elsevier
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 175 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 94 - 100 Identifier: CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/0038-092X