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  Collection of phloem sap in phytoplasma-infected plants

Zimmermann, M. R., Knauer, T., & Furch, A. C. U. (2018). Collection of phloem sap in phytoplasma-infected plants. In R. Musetti, & L. Pagliari (Eds.), Phytoplasmas: Methods and Protocols (pp. 291-299). New York: Springer Science+Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8837-2_21.

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GER532.pdf (Publisher version), 519KB
 
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Zimmermann, Matthias R., Author
Knauer, Torsten1, Author              
Furch, Alexandra C. U., Author
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1Department of Biochemistry, Prof. J. Gershenzon, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, ou_421893              

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 Abstract: Phytoplasmas colonize specifically the phloem sieve elements (SEs) of plants and influence effectively the plant physiology. To study and understand the interaction of phytoplasmas and host plants an access to the cellular, microscale volume of SEs is demanded. Different methods are suitable to collect phloem sap of phytoplasma-infected plants. The two most common methods are the EDTA-facilitated exudation and the stylectomy. For the EDTA-facilitated method, the cut end of a leaf is placed into an EDTA solution. The EDTA prevents and avoids the Ca2+ dependent (re-) occlusion of SEs by binding Ca2+ ions and the mass flow of SEs is restarted which results in an outflow of the SE content into the EDTA bathing solution. The advantage is on the one hand a simple application and secondly, feasible for all plant species. The stylectomy method requires piercing-sucking insects like any aphids. During phloem-sap ingestion, the stylet is severed by a microcautery device or a laser from the insect body. Due to the high turgor pressure of the SEs the phloem sap is forced out through the remaining stylet and can be collected with a glass capillary, for example. The stylectomy delivers pure phloem sap, however, the collected volumes are in the range of nano liters and the temporal and staff costs are tremendous. A third method is the spontaneous exudation in phytoplasma-infected apple trees providing only in springtime large volumes of vascular sap after cutting along the bark. For the spontaneous exudation the proportion of phloem sap is unclear. Thus, this third method still needs a closer examination in prospective surveys.

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 Dates: 20182018-10-262018
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: Other: GER532
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8837-2_21
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Title: Phytoplasmas: Methods and Protocols
Source Genre: Book
 Creator(s):
Musetti, Rita, Editor
Pagliari, Laura, Editor
Affiliations:
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Publ. Info: New York : Springer Science+Business Media
Pages: 362 Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 291 - 299 Identifier: ISSN: 1064-3745
ISBN: 978-1-4939-8836-5
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8837-2