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  Flavanone-3-hydroxylase plays an important role in the biosynthesis of spruce phenolic defenses against bark beetles and their fungal associates

Hammerbacher, A., Kandasamy, D., Ullah, C., Schmidt, A., Wright, L., & Gershenzon, J. (2019). Flavanone-3-hydroxylase plays an important role in the biosynthesis of spruce phenolic defenses against bark beetles and their fungal associates. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 208. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00208.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00208 (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Hammerbacher, Almuth, Author
Kandasamy, Dineshkumar1, 2, Author              
Ullah, Chhana1, 2, Author              
Schmidt, Axel1, Author              
Wright, Louwrance1, Author              
Gershenzon, Jonathan1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department of Biochemistry, Prof. J. Gershenzon, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, ou_421893              
2IMPRS on Ecological Interactions, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, Jena, DE, ou_421900              

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 Abstract: Conifer forests worldwide are becoming increasingly vulnerable to attacks by bark beetles and their fungal associates due to the effects of global warming. Attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and the blue-stain fungus it vectors (Endoconidiophora polonica) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) is well known to induce increased production of terpene oleoresin and polyphenolic compounds. However, it is not clear whether specific compounds are important in resisting attack. In this study, we observed a significant increase in dihydroflavonol and flavan-3-ol content after inoculating Norway spruce with the bark beetle vectored fungus. A bioassay revealed that the dihydroflavonol taxifolin and the flavan-3-ol catechin negatively affected both I. typographus and E. polonica. The biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols is well studied in Norway spruce, but little is known about dihydroflavonol formation in this species. A flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) was identified that catalyzed the conversion of eriodictyol to taxifolin and was highly expressed after E. polonica infection. Down-regulating F3H gene expression by RNA interference in transgenic Norway spruce resulted in significantly lower levels of both dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. Therefore F3H plays a key role in the biosynthesis of defense compounds in Norway spruce that act against the bark beetle-fungus complex. This enzyme forms a defensive product, taxifolin, which is also a metabolic precursor of another defensive product, catechin, which in turn synergizes the toxicity of taxifolin to the bark beetle associated fungus.

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 Dates: 2019-02-072019-02-15
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: Other: GER539
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00208
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Title: Frontiers in Plant Science
  Abbreviation : Front. Plant Sci.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Lausanne : Frontiers Media
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 10 Sequence Number: 208 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1664-462X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1664462X