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  Practical MRI: a toolkit of standard MR pulse sequences

Hagberg, G. (2018). Practical MRI: a toolkit of standard MR pulse sequences. Talk presented at 24th European Congress of Radiology (ECR 2018): Diverse & United. Wien, Austria. 2018-02-28 - 2018-03-04.

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Hagberg, G1, 2, Author              
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1Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497796              
2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tübingen, DE, ou_1497794              

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 Abstract: The MR sequence is the essential tool to measure MR properties in tissues, increase contrast between these and quantify relevant data. Besides furnishing the desired tissue-derived MR signal, the sequence must allow spatial encoding to take place as efficiently as possible to enable patient compliance, and high-quality MRI at the same time. Starting with a brief introduction regarding MR tissue properties and spatial encoding in k-space, I will describe the fundamental MR toolkit, based on single echo spin-echo (SE) and gradientecho (GE) and show how these are extended to different multiple-echo regimes. I will describe the basic image contrast and how imaging parameters, repetition time, TR; echo time, TE; flip angle, FA; inversion delay, diffusion gradients, etc., influence contrast. The possibility to further enhanced imaging by adequate spin-preparation, inversion or magnetization transfer pulses, etc., will also be discussed. Imaging speed can be achieved while remaining in the single echo regime by faster RF pulsing giving valuable information linked with magnetic susceptibility as in the GE-based FLASH method, based on spoiling of unwanted echoes. Another possibility is to use subsequent (spin) echoes to read out different k-space lines, without the cost of greater saturation that comes with shorter TRs, as in the SE-based method RARE. An alternative possibility that further extends available image contrast is to retain the full magnetization in GE-based sequences and acquire images in the different steady-state free-precession regimes. The latter techniques have gained momentum through the advent of magnetic fingerprinting and are a fundamental part of the standard MRI toolkit.

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 Dates: 2018-04
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1007/s13244-018-0603-8
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Title: 24th European Congress of Radiology (ECR 2018): Diverse & United
Place of Event: Wien, Austria
Start-/End Date: 2018-02-28 - 2018-03-04
Invited: Yes

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Title: Insights into Imaging
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 9 (Supplement 1) Sequence Number: A-846 Start / End Page: S162 Identifier: ISSN: 1869-4101