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  CARMENES: high-resolution spectra and precise radial velocities in the red and infrared

Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P. J., Ribas, I., Reiners, A., Caballero, J. A., Seifert, W., et al. (2018). CARMENES: high-resolution spectra and precise radial velocities in the red and infrared. In C. J. Evans, L. Simard, & H. Takami (Eds.), Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VII (pp. 107020W-1-107020W-18). doi:10.1117/12.2313689.

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Quirrenbach, A., Author
Amado, P. J., Author
Ribas, I., Author
Reiners, A., Author
Caballero, J. A., Author
Seifert, W., Author
Aceituno, J., Author
Azzaro, M., Author
Baroch, D., Author
Barrado, D., Author
Bauer, F., Author
Becerril, S., Author
Bèjar, V. J. S., Author
Benítez, D., Author
Brinkmöller, M., Author
Cardona Guillén, C. , Author
Cifuentes, C., Author
Colomé, J., Author
Cortés-Contreras, M., Author
Czesla, S., Author
Dreizler, S., AuthorFrölich, K., AuthorFuhrmeister, B., AuthorGaladí-Enríquez, D., AuthorGonzález Hernández, J. I. , AuthorGonzález Peinado, R. , AuthorGuenther, E. W., Authorde Guindos, E., AuthorHagen, H.-J., AuthorHatzes, A. P., AuthorHauschildt, P. H., AuthorHelmling, J., AuthorHenning, Th., AuthorHerbort, O., AuthorHernández Castaño, L. , AuthorHerrero, E., AuthorHintz, D., AuthorJeffers, S. V., AuthorJohnson, E. N., Authorde Juan, E., AuthorKaminski, A., AuthorKlahr, H., AuthorKürster, M., AuthorLafarga, M., AuthorSairam, L., AuthorLampón, M., AuthorLara, L. M., AuthorLaunhardt, R., AuthorLópez del Fresno, M. , AuthorLópez-Puertas, M., AuthorLuque, R., AuthorMandel, H., AuthorMarfil, E. G., AuthorMartín, E. L., AuthorMartín-Ruiz, S., AuthorMathar, R. J., AuthorMontes, D., AuthorMorales, J. C., AuthorNagel, E., AuthorNortmann, L., AuthorNowak, G., AuthorPallé, E., AuthorPassegger, V.-M., AuthorPavlov, A., AuthorPedraz, S., AuthorPérez-Medialdea, D., AuthorPerger, M., AuthorRebolo, R., AuthorReffert, S., AuthorRodríguez, E., AuthorRodríguez López, C. , AuthorRosich, A., AuthorSabotta, S., AuthorSadegi, S., AuthorSalz, M., AuthorSánchez-López, A., AuthorSanz-Forcada, J., AuthorSarkis, P., AuthorSchäfer, S., AuthorSchiller, J., AuthorSchmitt, J. H. M. M., AuthorSchöfer, P., AuthorSchweitzer, A., AuthorShulyak, D., AuthorSolano, E., AuthorStahl, O., AuthorTala Pinto, M., AuthorTrifonov, T., AuthorZapatero Osorio, M. R. , AuthorYan, F., AuthorZechmeister, M., AuthorAbellán, F. J., AuthorAbril, M., AuthorAlonso-Floriano, F. J., AuthorAmmler-von Eiff, Matthias1, Author           Anglada-Escudé, G., AuthorAnwand-Heerwart, H., AuthorArroyo-Torres, B., AuthorBerdiñas, Z. M., AuthorBergondy, G., AuthorBlümcke, M., AuthorBurgo, C. del, AuthorCano, J., AuthorCarro, J., AuthorCárdenas, M. C., AuthorCasal, E., AuthorClaret, A., AuthorDíez-Alonso, E., AuthorDoellinger, M., AuthorDorda, R., AuthorFeiz, C., AuthorFernández, M., AuthorFerro, I. M., AuthorGaisné, G., AuthorGallardo, I., AuthorGálvez-Ortiz, M. C., AuthorGarcía-Piquer, A., AuthorGarcía-Vargas, M. L., AuthorGarrido, R., AuthorGesa, L., AuthorGómez Galera, V. , AuthorGonzález-Álvarez, E., AuthorGonzález-Cuesta, L., AuthorGrohnert, S., AuthorGrözinger, U., AuthorGuàrdia, J., AuthorGuijarro, A., AuthorHedrosa, R. P., AuthorHermann, D., AuthorHermelo, I., AuthorHernández Arabí, R. , AuthorHernández Hernando, F. , AuthorHidalgo, D., AuthorHolgado, G., AuthorHuber, A., AuthorHuber, K., AuthorHuke, P., AuthorKehr, M., AuthorKim, M., AuthorKlein, R., AuthorKlüter, J., AuthorKlutsch, A., AuthorLabarga, F., AuthorLabiche, N., AuthorLamert, A., AuthorLaun, W., AuthorLázaro, F. J., AuthorLemke, U., AuthorLenzen, R., AuthorLlamas, M., AuthorLizon, J.-L., AuthorLodieu, N., AuthorLópez González, M. J. , AuthorLópez-Morales, M., AuthorLópez Salas, J. F. , AuthorLópez-Santiago, J., AuthorMagán Madinabeitia, H. , AuthorMall, Urs2, Author           Mancini, L., AuthorMarín Molina, J. A. , AuthorMartínez-Rodríguez, H., AuthorMaroto Fernández, D. , AuthorMarvin, C. J., AuthorMirabet, E., AuthorMoreno-Raya, M. E., AuthorMoya, A., AuthorMundt, R., AuthorNaranjo, V., AuthorPanduro, J., AuthorPascual, J., AuthorPérez-Calpena, A., AuthorPerryman, M. A. C., AuthorPluto, M., AuthorRamón, A., AuthorRedondo, P., AuthorReinhart, S., AuthorRhode, P., AuthorRix, H.-W., AuthorRodler, F., AuthorRohloff, R.-R., AuthorSánchez-Blanco, E., AuthorSánchez Carrasco, M. A. , AuthorSarmiento, L. F., AuthorSchmidt, C., AuthorStorz, C., AuthorStrachan, J. B. P., AuthorStürmer, J., AuthorSuárez, J. C., AuthorTabernero, H. M., AuthorTal-Or, L., AuthorTulloch, S. M., AuthorUlbrich, R.-G., AuthorVeredas, G., AuthorVico Linares, J. L. , AuthorVidal-Dasilva, M., AuthorVilardell, F., AuthorWagner, K., AuthorWinkler, J., AuthorWolthoff, V., AuthorXu, W., AuthorZhao, Z., Author more..
1Department Solar and Stellar Interiors, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society, ou_1832287              
2Department Planets and Comets, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society, ou_1832288              


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 Abstract: The design and construction of CARMENES has been presented at previous SPIE conferences. It is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument at the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory, which was built by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. CARMENES consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.71μm at a spec-tral resolution of R < 80,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. CARMENES saw “First Light” on Nov 9, 2015. During the commissioning and initial operation phases, we established basic performance data such as throughput and spectral resolution. We found that our hollow-cathode lamps are suitable for precise wavelength calibration, but their spectra contain a number of lines of neon or argon that are so bright that the lamps cannot be used in simultaneous exposures with stars. We have therefore adopted a calibration procedure that uses simultaneous star / Fabry Pérot etalon exposures in combination with a cross-calibration between the etalons and hollow-cathode lamps during daytime. With this strategy it has been possible to achieve 1-2 m/s precision in the visible and 5-10 m/s precision in the near-IR; further improvements are expected from ongoing work on temperature control, calibration procedures and data reduction. Comparing the RV precision achieved in different wavelength bands, we find a “sweet spot” between 0.7 and 0.8μm, where deep TiO bands provide rich RV information in mid-M dwarfs. This is in contrast to our pre-survey models, which predicted comparatively better performance in the near-IR around 1μm, and explains in part why our near-IR RVs do not reach the same precision level as those taken with the visible spectrograph. We are now conducting a large survey of 340 nearby M dwarfs (with an average distance of only 12pc), with the goal of finding terrestrial planets in their habitable zones. We have detected the signatures of several previously known or suspected planets and also discovered several new planets. We find that the radial velocity periodograms of many M dwarfs show several significant peaks. The development of robust methods to distinguish planet signatures from activity-induced radial velocity jitter is therefore among our priorities. Due to its large wavelength coverage, the CARMENES survey is generating a unique data set for studies of M star atmospheres, rotation, and activity. The spectra cover important diagnostic lines for activity (H alpha, Na I D1 and D2, and the Ca II infrared triplet), as well as FeH lines, from which the magnetic field can be inferred. Correlating the time series of these features with each other, and with wavelength-dependent radial velocities, provides excellent handles for the discrimination between planetary companions and stellar radial velocity jitter. These data are also generating new insight into the physical properties of M dwarf atmospheres, and the impact of activity and flares on the habitability of M star planets.


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019-04-032018
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1117/12.2313689
 Degree: -


Title: SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation
Place of Event: Austin, Texas, United States
Start-/End Date: 2018

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Title: Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VII
Source Genre: Proceedings
Evans, Christopher J., Editor
Simard, Luc, Editor
Takami, Hideki, Editor
Publ. Info: -
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 10702 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 107020W-1 - 107020W-18 Identifier: -