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  Functional diversification of horizontally acquired glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) proteins in Phytophaga beetles

Busch, A., Danchin, E. G. J., & Pauchet, Y. (2019). Functional diversification of horizontally acquired glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) proteins in Phytophaga beetles. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19: 100. doi:10.1186/s12862-019-1429-9.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1429-9 (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Busch, André1, 2, Author           
Danchin, Etienne G. J., Author
Pauchet, Yannick1, Author           
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1Department of Entomology, Prof. D. G. Heckel, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, ou_421895              
2IMPRS on Ecological Interactions, MPI for Chemical Ecology, Max Planck Society, Jena, DE, ou_421900              

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 Abstract: Background: Cellulose, a major polysaccharide of the plant cell wall, consists of β-1,4-linked glucose moieties forming a molecular network recalcitrant to enzymatic breakdown. Although cellulose is potentially a rich source of energy, the ability to degrade it is rare in animals and was believed to be present only in cellulolytic microbes. Recently, it has become clear that some animals encode endogenous cellulases belonging to several glycoside hydrolase families (GHs), including GH45. GH45s are distributed patchily among the Metazoa and, in insects, are encoded only by the genomes of Phytophaga beetles. This study aims to understand both the enzymatic functions and the evolutionary history of GH45s in these beetles. Results: To this end, we biochemically assessed the enzymatic activities of 37 GH45s derived from five species of Phytophaga beetles and discovered that beetle-derived GH45s degrade three different substrates: amorphous cellulose, xyloglucan and glucomannan. Our phylogenetic and gene structure analyses indicate that at least one gene encoding a putative cellulolytic GH45 was present in the last common ancestor of the Phytophaga, and that GH45 xyloglucanases evolved several times independently in these beetles. The most closely related clade to Phytophaga GH45s was composed of fungal sequences, suggesting this GH family was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Besides the insects, other arthropod GH45s do not share a common origin and appear to have emerged at least three times independently. Conclusion: The rise of functional innovation from gene duplication events has been a fundamental process in the evolution of GH45s in Phytophaga beetles. Both, enzymatic activity and ancestral origin suggest that GH45s were likely an essential prerequisite for the adaptation allowing Phytophaga beetles to feed on plants.

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 Dates: 2019-04-262019-05-10
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: Other: HEC419
DOI: 10.1186/s12862-019-1429-9
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Title: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: BioMed Central
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 19 Sequence Number: 100 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1471-2148
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/111000136905006