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  Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training

Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Trautwein, M., Böckler, A., Kanske, P., Guizard, N., et al. (2017). Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. Science Advances, 3(10): e1700489. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700489.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-FF1B-1 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-FF1C-0
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Valk, Sofie L.1, Author              
Bernhardt, Boris C.1, 2, Author              
Trautwein, Mathis1, Author              
Böckler, Anne1, 3, Author              
Kanske, Philipp1, 4, Author              
Guizard, Nicolas2, Author
Collins, D. Louis2, Author
Singer, Tania1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department Social Neuroscience, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634552              
2McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada, ou_persistent22              
3Department of Psychology, Julius Maximilian University, Würzburg, Germany, ou_persistent22              
4Department of Psychology, Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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 Abstract: Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at cultivating social intelligence, prosocial motivation, and cooperation.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2017-08-242017-10-04
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700489
PMID: 28983507
PMC: PMC5627980
Other: eCollection 2017
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Funding organization : Max Planck Society
Project name : Plasticity of the Empathic Brain: Structural and Functional MRI Studies on the Effect of Empathy Training on the Human Brain and Prosocial Behaviour / EMPATHICBRAIN
Grant ID : 205557
Funding program : Funding Programme 7
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)
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Funding program : -
Funding organization : Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
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Grant ID : -
Funding program : SickKids New Investigator Research grant
Funding organization : SickKids Foundation
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Grant ID : -
Funding program : CIHR Foundation grant
Funding organization : Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
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Grant ID : -
Funding program : Discovery Grant
Funding organization : Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC
Project name : -
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Funding program : -
Funding organization : Fonds de recherche du Québec (FRQS)

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Title: Science Advances
  Other : Sci. Adv.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington : AAAS
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 3 (10) Sequence Number: e1700489 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2375-2548
CoNE: /journals/resource/2375-2548