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  Persistent Neanderthal occupation of the open-air site of ‘Ein Qashish, Israel

Ekshtain, R., Malinsky-Buller, A., Greenbaum, N., Mitki, N., Stahlschmidt, M. C., Shahack-Gross, R., et al. (2019). Persistent Neanderthal occupation of the open-air site of ‘Ein Qashish, Israel. PLoS One, 14(6): e0215668. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215668.

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Ekshtain_Persistent_PLoSOne_2019.pdf (Publisher version), 7MB
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© 2019 Ekshtain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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 Creators:
Ekshtain, Ravid, Author
Malinsky-Buller, Ariel, Author
Greenbaum, Noam, Author
Mitki, Netta, Author
Stahlschmidt, Mareike C.1, Author                 
Shahack-Gross, Ruth, Author
Nir, Nadav, Author
Porat, Naomi, Author
Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E., Author
Yeshurun, Reuven, Author
Been, Ella, Author
Rak, Yoel, Author
Agha, Nuha, Author
Brailovsky, Lena, Author
Krakovsky, Masha, Author
Spivak, Polina, Author
Ullman, Micka, Author
Vered, Ariel, Author
Barzilai, Omry, Author
Hovers, Erella, Author
Affiliations:
1Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society, ou_1497673              

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 Abstract: Over the last two decades, much of the recent efforts dedicated to the Levantine Middle Paleolithic has concentrated on the role of open-air sites in the settlement system in the region. Here focus on the site of ‘Ein Qashish as a cases study. Located in present-day northern Israel, the area of this site is estimated to have been >1300 m2, of which ca. 670 were excavated. The site is located at the confluence of the Qishon stream with a small tributary running off the eastern flanks of the Mt. Carmel. At the area of this confluence, water channels and alluvial deposits created a dynamic depositional environment. Four Archaeological Units were identified in a 4.5-m thick stratigraphic sequence were dated by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to between—71 and 54 ka, and probably shorter time span–~70-~60 ka. Here we present the diverse material culture remains from the site (lithics, including refitted sequences; modified limestone pieces; molluscs; faunal remains) against their changing paleogeographic backdrop. Skeletal evidence suggests that these remains were associated with Neanderthals. The large-scale repeated accumulation of late Middle Paleolithic remains in the same place on the landscape provides a unique opportunity to address questions of occupation duration and intensity in open-air sites. We find that each occupation was of ephemeral nature, yet presents a range of activities, suggesting that the locale has been used as a generalized residential site rather than specialized task-specific ones. This role of ‘Ein Qashish did not change through time, suggesting that during the late Middle Paleolithic settlement system in this part of the southern Levant were stable.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019-06
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215668
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Title: PLoS One
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 14 (6) Sequence Number: e0215668 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1932-6203
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1000000000277850