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  Signatures of network structure in timescales of spontaneous activity

Zeraati, R., Steinmetz, N., Moore, T., Engel, T., & Levina, A. (2019). Signatures of network structure in timescales of spontaneous activity. In 28th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting (CNS*2019) (pp. 51).

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-3F45-9 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-CA88-F
Genre: Meeting Abstract

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Zeraati, R1, 2, Author              
Steinmetz, N, Author
Moore, T, Author
Engel, T, Author
Levina, A1, 2, Author              
Affiliations:
1Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tübingen, DE, ou_1497794              
2Department Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497798              

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 Abstract: Cortical networks are spontaneously active. Timescales of these intrinsic fluctuations were suggested to reflect the network’s specialization for task-relevant computations. However, how these timescales arise from the spatial network structure is unknown. Spontaneous cortical activity unfolds across different spatial scales. On a local scale of individual columns, ongoing activity spontaneously transitions between episodes of vigorous (On) and faint (Off) spiking, synchronously across cortical layers. On a wider spatial scale, activity propagates as cascades of elevated firing across many columns, characterized by the branching ratio defined as the average number of units activated by each active unit. We asked, to what extent the timescales of spontaneous activity reflect the dynamics on these two spatial scales and the underlying network structure. To this end, we developed a branching network model capable of capturing both the local On-Off dynamics and the global activity propagation. Each unit in the model represents a cortical column, which has spatially structured connections to other columns (Fig. 1A). The columns stochastically transition between On and Off states. Transitions to On-state are driven by stochastic external inputs and by excitatory inputs from the neighboring columns (horizontal recurrent input). An On state can persist due to a self-excitation representing strong recurrent connections within one column (vertical recurrent input). On and Off episode durations in our model follow exponential distributions, similar to the On-Off dynamics observed in single cortical columns (Fig. 1B). We fixed the statistics of On-Off transitions and the global propagation, and studied the dependence of intrinsic timescales on the network spatial structure. We found that the timescales of local dynamics reflect the spatial network structure. In the model, activity of single columns exhibits two distinct timescales: one induced by the recurrent excitation within the column and another induced by interactions between the columns (Fig. 1C). The first timescale dominates dynamics in networks with more dispersed connectivity (Fig. 1A, non-local; Fig. 1D), whereas the second timescale is prominent in networks with more local connectivity (Fig. 1A, local; Fig. 1D). Since neighboring columns share many of their recurrent inputs, the second timescale is also evident in cross-correlations (CC) between columns, and it becomes longer with increasing distance between columns. To test the model predictions, we analyzed 16-channel microelectrode array recordings of spiking activity from single columns in the primate area V4. During spontaneous activity, we observed two distinct timescales in columnar On-Off fluctuations (Fig. 1E). Two timescales were also present in CCs of neural activity on different channels within the same column. To examine how timescales depend on horizontal cortical distance, we leveraged the fact that columnar recordings generally exhibit slight horizontal shifts due to variability in the penetration angle. As a surrogate for horizontal displacements between pairs of channels, we used distances between centers of their receptive fields (RF). As predicted by the model, the second timescale in CCs became longer with increasing RF-center distance. Our results suggest that timescales of local On-Off fluctuations in single cortical columns provide information about the underlying spatial network structure of the cortex.

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 Dates: 2019-07
 Publication Status: Published online
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Title: 28th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting (CNS*2019)
Place of Event: Barcelona, Spain
Start-/End Date: 2019-07-13 - 2019-07-17

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Title: 28th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting (CNS*2019)
Source Genre: Proceedings
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: F2 Start / End Page: 51 Identifier: -