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  Ammonium nitrate particles formed in upper troposphere from ground ammonia sources during Asian monsoons

Hoepfner, M., Ungermann, J., Borrmann, S., Wagner, R., Spang, R., Riese, M., et al. (2019). Ammonium nitrate particles formed in upper troposphere from ground ammonia sources during Asian monsoons. Nature Geoscience, 12(8), 608-612. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0385-8.

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 Creators:
Hoepfner, Michael1, Author
Ungermann, Joern1, Author
Borrmann, Stephan2, Author              
Wagner, Robert1, Author
Spang, Reinhold1, Author
Riese, Martin1, Author
Stiller, Gabriele1, Author
Appel, Oliver3, Author              
Batenburg, Anneke M.2, Author              
Bucci, Silvia1, Author
Cairo, Francesco1, Author
Dragoneas, Antonis2, Author              
Friedl-Vallon, Felix1, Author
Hünig, Andreas2, Author              
Johansson, Soren1, Author
Krasauskas, Lukas1, Author
Legras, Bernard1, Author
Leisner, Thomas1, Author
Mahnke, Christoph O.2, Author              
Moehler, Ottmar1, Author
Molleker, Sergej2, Author              Mueller, Rolf1, AuthorNeubert, Tom1, AuthorOrphal, Johannes1, AuthorPreusse, Peter1, AuthorRex, Markus1, AuthorSaathoff, Harald1, AuthorStroh, Fred1, AuthorWeigel, Ralf1, AuthorWohltmann, Ingo1, Author more..
Affiliations:
1external, ou_persistent22              
2Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826291              
3Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826284              

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 Abstract: The rise of ammonia emissions in Asia is predicted to increase radiative cooling and air pollution by forming ammonium nitrate particles in the lower troposphere. There is, however, a severe lack of knowledge about ammonia and ammoniated aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and their possible effects on the formation of clouds. Here we employ satellite observations and high-altitude aircraft measurements, combined with atmospheric trajectory simulations and cloud-chamber experiments, to demonstrate the presence of ammonium nitrate particles and also track the source of the ammonia that forms into the particles. We found that during the Asian monsoon period, solid ammonium nitrate particles are surprisingly ubiquitous in the upper troposphere from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Western Pacific—even as early as in 1997. We show that this ammonium nitrate aerosol layer is fed by convection that transports large amounts of ammonia from surface sources into the upper troposphere. Impurities of ammonium sulfate allow the crystallization of ammonium nitrate even in the conditions, such as a high relative humidity, that prevail in the upper troposphere. Solid ammonium nitrate particles in the upper troposphere play a hitherto neglected role in ice cloud formation and aerosol indirect radiative forcing.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: ISI: 000477864200009
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0385-8
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Title: Nature Geoscience
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Nature Publishing Group
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 12 (8) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 608 - 612 Identifier: ISSN: 1752-0894
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1752-0894