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  The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia

Narasimhan, V. M., Patterson, N., Moorjani, P., Rohland, N., Bernardos, R., Mallick, S., et al. (2019). The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia. Science, 365(6457): eaat7487, pp. 999-999. doi:10.1126/science.aat7487.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0004-CEDB-E Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-D292-7
Genre: Journal Article

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Narasimhan, Vagheesh M., Author
Patterson, Nick, Author
Moorjani, Priya, Author
Rohland, Nadin, Author
Bernardos, Rebecca, Author
Mallick, Swapan, Author
Lazaridis, Iosif, Author
Nakatsuka, Nathan, Author
Olalde, Iñigo, Author
Lipson, Mark, Author
Kim, Alexander M., Author
Olivieri, Luca M., Author
Coppa, Alfredo, Author
Vidale, Massimo, Author
Mallory, James, Author
Moiseyev, Vyacheslav, Author
Kitov, Egor, Author
Monge, Janet, Author
Adamski, Nicole, Author
Alex, Neel, Author
Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen, AuthorCandilio, Francesca, AuthorCallan, Kimberly, AuthorCheronet, Olivia, AuthorCulleton, Brendan J., AuthorFerry, Matthew, AuthorFernandes, Daniel, AuthorFreilich, Suzanne, AuthorGamarra, Beatriz, AuthorGaudio, Daniel, AuthorHajdinjak, Mateja, AuthorHarney, Éadaoin, AuthorHarper, Thomas K., AuthorKeating, Denise, AuthorLawson, Ann Marie, AuthorMah, Matthew, AuthorMandl, Kirsten, AuthorMichel, Megan, AuthorNovak, Mario, AuthorOppenheimer, Jonas, AuthorRai, Niraj, AuthorSirak, Kendra, AuthorSlon, Viviane, AuthorStewardson, Kristin, AuthorZalzala, Fatma, AuthorZhang, Zhao, AuthorAkhatov, Gaziz, AuthorBagashev, Anatoly N., AuthorBagnera, Alessandra, AuthorBaitanayev, Bauryzhan, AuthorBendezu-Sarmiento, Julio, AuthorBissembaev, Arman A., AuthorBonora, Gian Luca, AuthorChargynov, Temirlan T., AuthorChikisheva, Tatiana, AuthorDashkovskiy, Petr K., AuthorDerevianko, Anatoly, AuthorDobes, Miroslav, AuthorDouka, Katerina1, Author              Dubova, Nadezhda, AuthorDuisengali, Meiram N., AuthorEnshin, Dmitry, AuthorEpimakhov, Andrey, AuthorFribus, Alexey V., AuthorFuller, Dorian, AuthorGoryachev, Alexander, AuthorGromov, Andrey, AuthorGrushin, Sergey P., AuthorHanks, Bryan, AuthorJudd, Margaret, AuthorKazizov, Erlan, AuthorKhokhlov, Aleksander, AuthorKrygin, Aleksander P., AuthorKupriyanova, Elena, AuthorKuznetsov, Pavel, AuthorLuiselli, Donata, AuthorMaksudov, Farhod, AuthorMamedov, Aslan M., AuthorMamirov, Talgat B., AuthorMeiklejohn, Christopher, AuthorMerrett, Deborah C., AuthorMicheli, Roberto, AuthorMochalov, Oleg, AuthorMustafokulov, Samariddin, AuthorNayak, Ayushi1, Author              Pettener, Davide, AuthorPotts, Richard, AuthorRazhev, Dmitry, AuthorRykun, Marina, AuthorSarno, Stefania, AuthorSavenkova, Tatyana M., AuthorSikhymbaeva, Kulyan, AuthorSlepchenko, Sergey M., AuthorSoltobaev, Oroz A., AuthorStepanova, Nadezhda, AuthorSvyatko, Svetlana, AuthorTabaldiev, Kubatbek, AuthorTeschler-Nicola, Maria, AuthorTishkin, Alexey A., AuthorTkachev, Vitaly V., AuthorVasilyev, Sergey, AuthorVelemínský, Petr, AuthorVoyakin, Dmitriy, AuthorYermolayeva, Antonina, AuthorZahir, Muhammad1, Author              Zubkov, Valery S., AuthorZubova, Alisa, AuthorShinde, Vasant S., AuthorLalueza-Fox, Carles, AuthorMeyer, Matthias, AuthorAnthony, David, AuthorBoivin, Nicole L.1, Author              Thangaraj, Kumarasamy, AuthorKennett, Douglas J., AuthorFrachetti, Michael, AuthorPinhasi, Ron, AuthorReich, David, Author more..
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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 Abstract: RATIONALE: To elucidate the extent to which the major cultural transformations of farming, pastoralism, and shifts in the distribution of languages in Eurasia were accompanied by movement of people, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from 523 individuals spanning the last 8000 years, mostly from Central Asia and northernmost South Asia. - RESULTS: The movement of people following the advent of farming resulted in genetic gradients across Eurasia that can be modeled as mixtures of seven deeply divergent populations. A key gradient formed in southwestern Asia beginning in the Neolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age, with more Anatolian farmer–related ancestry in the west and more Iranian farmer–related ancestry in the east. This cline extended to the desert oases of Central Asia and was the primary source of ancestry in peoples of the Bronze Age Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC). This supports the idea that the archaeologically documented dispersal of domesticates was accompanied by the spread of people from multiple centers of domestication. The main population of the BMAC carried no ancestry from Steppe pastoralists and did not contribute substantially to later South Asians. However, Steppe pastoralist ancestry appeared in outlier individuals at BMAC sites by the turn of the second millennium BCE around the same time as it appeared on the southern Steppe. Using data from ancient individuals from the Swat Valley of northernmost South Asia, we show that Steppe ancestry then integrated further south in the first half of the second millennium BCE, contributing up to 30% of the ancestry of modern groups in South Asia. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the unique features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages. The primary ancestral population of modern South Asians is a mixture of people related to early Holocene populations of Iran and South Asia that we detect in outlier individuals from two sites in cultural contact with the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), making it plausible that it was characteristic of the IVC. After the IVC’s decline, this population mixed with northwestern groups with Steppe ancestry to form the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI) and also mixed with southeastern groups to form the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), whose direct descendants today live in tribal groups in southern India. Mixtures of these two post-IVC groups—the ANI and ASI—drive the main gradient of genetic variation in South Asia today. - CONCLUSION: Earlier work recorded massive population movement from the Eurasian Steppe into Europe early in the third millennium BCE, likely spreading Indo-European languages. We reveal a parallel series of events leading to the spread of Steppe ancestry to South Asia, thereby documenting movements of people that were likely conduits for the spread of Indo-European languages.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019-09-062019-09-06
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 18
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Dataset and analysis strategy
- Iran and Turan: A west-to-east cline of decreasing Anatolian farmer–related ancestry
- People of the BMAC were not a major source of ancestry for South Asians
- Steppe pastoralist–derived ancestry arrived in Turan by 2100 BCE
- An ancestry profile widespread during the Indus Valley Civilization
- The Steppe and Forest Zone Ancestry clines in Eurasia established after the advent of farming
- A distinctive ancestry profile stretching from Eastern Europe to Kazakhstan in the Bronze Age
- Bidirectional mobility along the Inner Asian Mountain Corridor
- The genomic formation of human populations in South Asia Three ancestry clines that succeeded each other in time in South Asia
- The ASI and ANI arose as Indus Periphery Cline people mixed with groups to the north and east
- Steppe ancestry in modern South Asians is primarily from males and
disproportionately high in Brahmin and Bhumihar groups

Discussion

Materials and methods: Ancient DNA laboratory work
- Radiocarbon dating
- Principal components analysis (PCA)
- ADMIXTURE clustering
- f-statistics
- Modeling admixture history
- Hierarchical modeling
- Method for dating admixture events
 Rev. Method: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7487
Other: shh2406
 Degree: -

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Title: Science
  Other : Science
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, D.C. : American Association for the Advancement of Science
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 365 (6457) Sequence Number: eaat7487 Start / End Page: 999 - 999 Identifier: ISSN: 0036-8075
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/991042748276600_1