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  Earthquake and typhoon trigger unprecedented transient shifts in shallow hydrothermal vents biogeochemistry

Lebrato, M., Wang, Y., Tseng, L.-C., Achterberg, E. P., Chen, X.-G., Molinero, J.-C., et al. (2019). Earthquake and typhoon trigger unprecedented transient shifts in shallow hydrothermal vents biogeochemistry. Scientific Reports, 9(1): 16926. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-53314-y.

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 Creators:
Lebrato, Mario, Author
Wang, Yiming1, Author              
Tseng, Li-Chun, Author
Achterberg, Eric P., Author
Chen, Xue-Gang, Author
Molinero, Juan-Carlos, Author
Bremer, Karen, Author
Westernströer, Ulrike, Author
Söding, Emanuel, Author
Dahms, Hans-Uwe, Author
Küter, Marie, Author
Heinath, Verena, Author
Jöhnck, Janika, Author
Konstantinou, Kostas I., Author
Yang, Yiing J., Author
Hwang, Jiang-Shiou, Author
Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter, Author
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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Free keywords: Ecosystem ecology, Element cycles, Marine chemistry
 Abstract: Shallow hydrothermal vents are of pivotal relevance for ocean biogeochemical cycles, including seawater dissolved heavy metals and trace elements as well as the carbonate system balance. The Kueishan Tao (KST) stratovolcano off Taiwan is associated with numerous hydrothermal vents emitting warm sulfur-rich fluids at so-called White Vents (WV) and Yellow Vent (YV) that impact the surrounding seawater masses and habitats. The morphological and biogeochemical consequences caused by a M5.8 earthquake and a C5 typhoon (“Nepartak”) hitting KST (12th May, and 2nd–10th July, 2016) were studied within a 10-year time series (2009–2018) combining aerial drone imagery, technical diving, and hydrographic surveys. The catastrophic disturbances triggered landslides that reshaped the shoreline, burying the seabed and, as a consequence, native sulfur accretions that were abundant on the seafloor disappeared. A significant reduction in venting activity and fluid flow was observed at the high-temperature YV. Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) maxima in surrounding seawater reached 3000–5000 µmol kg−1, and Total Alkalinity (TA) drawdowns were below 1500–1000 µmol kg−1 lasting for one year. A strong decrease and, in some cases, depletion of dissolved elements (Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Fe, Cu, As) including Mg and Cl in seawater from shallow depths to the open ocean followed the disturbance, with a recovery of Mg and Cl to pre-disturbance concentrations in 2018. The WV and YV benthic megafauna exhibited mixed responses in their skeleton Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios, not always following directions of seawater chemical changes. Over 70% of the organisms increased skeleton Mg:Ca ratio during rising DIC (higher CO2) despite decreasing seawater Mg:Ca ratios showing a high level of resilience. KST benthic organisms have historically co-existed with such events providing them ecological advantages under extreme conditions. The sudden and catastrophic changes observed at the KST site profoundly reshaped biogeochemical processes in shallow and offshore waters for one year, but they remained transient in nature, with a possible recovery of the system within two years.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019-11-15
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 14
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Results

Discussion

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- Hydrographic surveys.
- Aerial and underwater work.
- Seawater analytics.
- Biological samples collection.
- Skeleton carbonate preparation and analytics.
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53314-y
Other: shh2461
 Degree: -

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Title: Scientific Reports
  Abbreviation : Sci. Rep.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London, UK : Nature Publishing Group
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 9 (1) Sequence Number: 16926 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2045-2322
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2045-2322