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  Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine

Welker, F., Ramos-Madrigal, J., Kuhlwilm, M., Liao, W., Gutenbrunner, P., de Manuel, M., et al. (2019). Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine. NATURE, 576(7786), 262-265. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-9D10-8 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-9D11-7
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Welker, Frido1, Author
Ramos-Madrigal, Jazmin1, Author
Kuhlwilm, Martin1, Author
Liao, Wei1, Author
Gutenbrunner, Petra2, Author              
de Manuel, Marc1, Author
Samodova, Diana1, Author
Mackie, Meaghan1, Author
Allentoft, Morten E.1, Author
Bacon, Anne-Marie1, Author
Collins, Matthew J.1, Author
Cox, Jürgen2, Author              
Lalueza-Fox, Carles1, Author
Olsen, Jesper V.1, Author
Demeter, Fabrice1, Author
Wang, Wei1, Author
Marques-Bonet, Tomas1, Author
Cappellini, Enrico1, Author
Affiliations:
1external, ou_persistent22              
2Cox, Jürgen / Computational Systems Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_2063284              

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Free keywords: CHUIFENG CAVE; GREAT APE; PLEISTOCENE; GUANGXI; BLACKI; IDENTIFICATION; DIVERSITY; CHONGZUO; MIOCENE; FOSSIL
 Abstract: Gigantopithecus blacki was a giant hominid that inhabited densely forested environments of Southeast Asia during the Pleistocene epoch(1). Its evolutionary relationships to other great ape species, and the divergence of these species during the Middle and Late Miocene epoch (16-5.3 million years ago), remain unclear(2,3). Hypotheses regarding the relationships between Gigantopithecus and extinct and extant hominids are wide ranging but difficult to substantiate because of its highly derived dentognathic morphology, the absence of cranial and post-cranial remains(1,3-6), and the lack of independent molecular validation. We retrieved dental enamel proteome sequences from a 1.9-million-year-old G. blacki molar found in Chuifeng Cave, China(7,8). The thermal age of these protein sequences is approximately five times greater than that of any previously published mammalian proteome or genome. We demonstrate that Gigantopithecus is a sister clade to orangutans (genus Pongo) with a common ancestor about 12-10 million years ago, implying that the divergence of Gigantopithecus from Pongo forms part of the Miocene radiation of great apes. In addition, we hypothesize that the expression of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, which has not been previously observed in enamel proteomes, had a role in the biomineralization of the thick enamel crowns that characterize the large molars in Gigantopithecus(9,10). The survival of an Early Pleistocene dental enamel proteome in the subtropics further expands the scope of palaeoproteomic analysis into geographical areas and time periods previously considered incompatible with the preservation of substantial amounts of genetic information.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 18
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: ISI: 000502792400055
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8
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Title: NATURE
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: MACMILLAN BUILDING, 4 CRINAN ST, LONDON N1 9XW, ENGLAND : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 576 (7786) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 262 - 265 Identifier: ISSN: 0028-0836