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  Lensing and shadow of a black hole surrounded by a heavy accretion disk

Cunha, P. V. P., Eiró, N. A., Herdeiro, C. A. R., & Lemos, J. P. S. (2020). Lensing and shadow of a black hole surrounded by a heavy accretion disk. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2020(03): 035. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/03/035.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0005-72A5-0 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-6315-3
Genre: Journal Article

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Cunha, Pedro V. P.1, Author              
Eiró, Nelson A., Author
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R., Author
Lemos, José P. S., Author
Affiliations:
1Gravitation and Black Hole Theory, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_2477691              

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Free keywords: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, gr-qc, Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, astro-ph.HE,High Energy Physics - Theory, hep-th
 Abstract: We consider a static, axially symmetric spacetime describing the superposition of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH) with a thin and heavy accretion disk. The BH-disk configuration is a solution of the Einstein field equations within the Weyl class. The disk is sourced by a distributional energy-momentum tensor and it is located at the equatorial plane. It can be interpreted as two streams of counter-rotating particles, yielding a total vanishing angular momentum. The phenomenology of the composed system depends on two parameters: the fraction of the total mass in the disk, $m$, and the location of the inner edge of the disk, $a$. We start by determining the sub-region of the space of parameters wherein the solution is physical, by requiring the velocity of the disk particles to be sub-luminal and real. Then, we study the null geodesic flow by performing backwards ray-tracing under two scenarios. In the first scenario the composed system is illuminated by the disk and in the second scenario the composed system is illuminated by a far-away celestial sphere. Both cases show that, as $m$ grows, the shadow becomes more prolate. Additionally, the first scenario makes clear that as $m$ grows, for fixed $a$, the geometrically thin disk appears optically enlarged, i.e., thicker, when observed from the equatorial plane. This is to due to light rays that are bent towards the disk, when backwards ray traced. In the second scenario, these light rays can cross the disk (which is assumed to be transparent) and may oscillate up to a few times before reaching the far away celestial sphere. Consequently, an almost equatorial observer sees different patches of the sky near the equatorial plane, as a chaotic "mirage". As $m\rightarrow 0$ one recovers the standard test, i.e., negligible mass, disk appearance.

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 Dates: 2019-12-182019-12-272020
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 24 pages, 15 figures
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 Rev. Method: -
 Identifiers: arXiv: 1912.08833
URI: http://arxiv.org/abs/1912.08833
DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2020/03/035
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Title: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 2020 (03) Sequence Number: 035 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -