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  Sooty mangabeys scavenge on nuts cracked by chimpanzees and red river hogs: An investigation of inter‐specific interactions around tropical nut trees

van Pinxteren, B. O., Sirianni, G., Gratton, P., Despres-Einspenner, M.-L., Egas, M., Kühl, H. S., et al. (2018). Sooty mangabeys scavenge on nuts cracked by chimpanzees and red river hogs: An investigation of inter‐specific interactions around tropical nut trees. American Journal of Primatology, 80(8): e22895. doi:10.1002/ajp.22895.

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Pinxteren_Sooty_AmJPrim_2018.pdf (Publisher version), 2MB
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© 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

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 Creators:
van Pinxteren, Bryndan O.C.M., Author
Sirianni, Giulia1, 2, Author           
Gratton, Paolo2, 3, Author           
Despres-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne2, 3, 4, Author           
Egas, Martijn, Author
Kühl, Hjalmar S.1, 2, Author           
Lapuente, Juan2, 3, Author           
Meier, Amelia2, Author           
Janmaat, Karline1, 2, Author           
Affiliations:
1Chimpanzees, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society, ou_2149636              
2Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society, ou_1497674              
3Great Ape Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society, ou_2149638              
4The Leipzig School of Human Origins (IMPRS), Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Society, ou_1497688              

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Free keywords: auditory cues community ecology interspecific interactions nut‐cracking scavenging tropics
 Abstract: Carrion scavenging is a well‐studied phenomenon, but virtually nothing is known about scavenging on plant material, especially on remnants of cracked nuts. Just like meat, the insides of hard‐shelled nuts are high in energetic value, and both foods are difficult to acquire. In the Taï forest, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) crack nuts by using tools or strong jaws, respectively. In this study, previously collected non‐invasive camera trap data were used to investigate scavenging by sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), two species of Guinea fowl (Agelestres meleagrides; Guttera verreauxi), and squirrels (Scrunidae spp.) on the nut remnants cracked by chimpanzees and red river hogs. We investigated how scavengers located nut remnants, by analyzing their visiting behavior in relation to known nut‐cracking events. Furthermore, since mangabeys are infrequently preyed upon by chimpanzees, we investigated whether they perceive an increase in predation risk when approaching nut remnants. In total, 190 nut‐cracking events were observed in four different areas of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. We could confirm that mangabeys scavenged on the nuts cracked by chimpanzees and hogs and that this enabled them to access food source that would not be accessible otherwise. We furthermore found that mangabeys, but not the other species, were more likely to visit nut‐cracking sites after nut‐cracking activities than before, and discuss the potential strategies that the monkeys could have used to locate nut remnants. In addition, mangabeys showed elevated levels of vigilance at the chimpanzee nut‐cracking sites compared with other foraging sites, suggesting that they perceived elevated danger at these sites. Scavenging on remnants of cracked nuts is a hitherto understudied type of foraging behavior that could be widespread in nature and increases the complexity of community ecology in tropical rainforests.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2018-07-192018-08
 Publication Status: Issued
 Pages: 12
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22895
 Degree: -

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Title: American Journal of Primatology
  Abbreviation : Am. J. Primatol.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: New York, NY : A.R. Liss
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 80 (8) Sequence Number: e22895 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0275-2565
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/110985822457224