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  Hemagglutinin Stability Regulates H1N1 Influenza Virus Replication and Pathogenicity in Mice by Modulating Type I Interferon Responses in Dendritic Cells

Russier, M., Yang, G., Briard, B., Meliopoulos, V., Cherry, S., Kanneganti, T.-D., et al. (2020). Hemagglutinin Stability Regulates H1N1 Influenza Virus Replication and Pathogenicity in Mice by Modulating Type I Interferon Responses in Dendritic Cells. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 94(3): e01423-19. doi:10.1128/JVI.01423-19.

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 Creators:
Russier, Marion1, Author              
Yang, Guohua2, Author
Briard, Benoit2, Author
Meliopoulos, Victoria2, Author
Cherry, Sean2, Author
Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi2, Author
Schultz-Cherry, Stacey2, Author
Vogel, Peter2, Author
Russell, Charles J.2, Author
Affiliations:
1Murray, Peter / Immunoregulation, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_2466696              
2external, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: AIRWAY SURFACE LIQUID; UPPER RESPIRATORY-TRACT; RECEPTOR-BINDING; MEMBRANE-FUSION; PH STABILITY; H5 HA; PROTEIN; TRANSMISSION; ACTIVATION; INFECTIONinfluenza virus; hemagglutinin (HA); protein stability; interferon responses; mouse model; pathogenesis; protein stability; viral fusion protein;
 Abstract: Hemagglutinin (HA) stability, or the pH at which HA is activated to cause membrane fusion, has been associated with the replication, pathogenicity, transmissibility, and interspecies adaptation of influenza A viruses. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which a destabilizing HA mutation, Y17H (activation pH, 6.0), attenuates virus replication and pathogenicity in DBA/2 mice compared to wildtype (WT) virus (activation pH, 5.5). The extracellular lung pH was measured to be near neutral (pH 6.9 to 7.5). WT and Y17H viruses had similar environmental stability at pH 7.0; thus, extracellular inactivation was unlikely to attenuate the Y17H virus. The Y17H virus had accelerated replication kinetics in MDCK, A549, and RAW 264.7 cells when inoculated at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 3 PFU/cell. The destabilizing mutation also increased early infectivity and type I interferon (IFN) responses in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, the HA-Y17H mutation reduced virus replication in murine airway murine nasal epithelial cell and murine tracheal epithelial cell cultures and attenuated virus replication, virus spread, the severity of infection, and cellular infiltration in the lungs of mice. Normalizing virus infection and weight loss in mice by inoculating them with Y17H virus at a dose 500-fold higher than that of WT virus revealed that the destabilized mutant virus triggered the upregulation of more host genes and increased type I IFN responses and cytokine expression in DBA/2 mouse lungs. Overall, HA destabilization decreased virulence in mice by boosting early infection in DCs, resulting in the greater activation of antiviral responses, including the type I IFN response. These studies reveal that HA stability may regulate pathogenicity by modulating IFN responses. IMPORTANCE Diverse influenza A viruses circulate in wild aquatic birds, occasionally infecting farm animals. Rarely, an avian- or swine-origin influenza virus adapts to humans and starts a pandemic. Seasonal and many universal influenza vaccines target the HA surface protein, which is a key component of pandemic influenza viruses. Understanding the HA properties needed for replication and pathogenicity in mammals may guide response efforts to control influenza. Some antiviral drugs and broadly reactive influenza vaccines that target the HA protein have suffered resistance due to destabilizing HA mutations that do not compromise replicative fitness in cell culture. Here, we show that despite not compromising fitness in standard cell cultures, a destabilizing H1N1 HA stalk mutation greatly diminishes viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo by modulating type I IFN responses. This encourages targeting the HA stalk with antiviral drugs and vaccines as well as reevaluating previous candidates that were susceptible to destabilizing resistance mutations.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 19
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: ISI: 000508005900014
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01423-19
 Degree: -

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Title: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: 1752 N ST NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036-2904 USA : AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 94 (3) Sequence Number: e01423-19 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0022-538X