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  Investigating the temporal dynamics of electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates using recurrent neural networks

Sikka, A., Jamalabadi, H., Krylova, M., Alizadeh, S., van der Meer, J., Danyeli, L., et al. (2020). Investigating the temporal dynamics of electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates using recurrent neural networks. Human Brain Mapping, 41(9), 2334-2346. doi:10.1002/hbm.24949.

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Sikka, A, Author
Jamalabadi, H, Author              
Krylova, M, Author              
Alizadeh, S, Author              
van der Meer, JN, Author
Danyeli, L, Author
Deliano, JM, Author
Vicheva , P, Author
Hahn, T, Author
Koenig, T, Author
Bathula , DR, Author
Walter, M1, 2, Author              
Affiliations:
1Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497794              
2Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497796              

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 Abstract: Electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates that represent quasi-stable, global neuronal activity are considered as the building blocks of brain dynamics. Therefore, the analysis of microstate sequences is a promising approach to understand fast brain dynamics that underlie various mental processes. Recent studies suggest that EEG microstate sequences are non-Markovian and nonstationary, highlighting the importance of the sequential flow of information between different brain states. These findings inspired us to model these sequences using Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) consisting of long-short-term-memory (LSTM) units to capture the complex temporal dependencies. Using an LSTM-based auto encoder framework and different encoding schemes, we modeled the microstate sequences at multiple time scales (200-2,000 ms) aiming to capture stably recurring microstate patterns within and across subjects. We show that RNNs can learn underlying microstate patterns with high accuracy and that the microstate trajectories are subject invariant at shorter time scales (≤400 ms) and reproducible across sessions. Significant drop in the reconstruction accuracy was observed for longer sequence lengths of 2,000 ms. These findings indirectly corroborate earlier studies which indicated that EEG microstate sequences exhibit long-range dependencies with finite memory content. Furthermore, we find that the latent representations learned by the RNNs are sensitive to external stimulation such as stress while the conventional univariate microstate measures (e.g., occurrence, mean duration, etc.) fail to capture such changes in brain dynamics. While RNNs cannot be configured to identify the specific discriminating patterns, they have the potential for learning the underlying temporal dynamics and are sensitive to sequence aberrations characterized by changes in metal processes. Empowered with the macroscopic understanding of the temporal dynamics that extends beyond short-term interactions, RNNs offer a reliable alternative for exploring system level brain dynamics using EEG microstate sequences.

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 Dates: 2020-022020-06
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24949
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Title: Human Brain Mapping
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: New York : Wiley-Liss
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 41 (9) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 2334 - 2346 Identifier: ISSN: 1065-9471
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925601686