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  The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations

Carrasco-González, C., Sierra, A., Flock, M., Zhu, Z., Henning, T., Chandler, C., et al. (2019). The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations. The Astrophysical Journal, 883.

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 Creators:
Carrasco-González, Carlos1, Author
Sierra, Anibal1, Author
Flock, Mario1, Author
Zhu, Zhaohuan1, Author
Henning, Thomas1, Author
Chandler, Claire1, Author
Galván-Madrid, Roberto1, Author
Macías, Enrique1, Author
Anglada, Guillem1, Author
Linz, Hendrik1, Author
Osorio, Mayra1, Author
Rodríguez, Luis F.1, Author
Testi, Leonardo1, Author
Torrelles, José M.1, Author
Pérez, Laura1, Author
Liu, Yao1, Author
Affiliations:
1Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Max Planck Society and Cooperation Partners, ou_2421692              

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Free keywords: Planet formation Protoplanetary disks Dust continuum emission Millimeter astronomy Very Large Array T Tauri stars
 Abstract: Understanding planet formation requires one to discern how dust grows in protoplanetary disks. An important parameter to measure in disks is the maximum dust grain size present. This is usually estimated through measurements of the dust opacity at different millimeter wavelengths assuming optically thin emission and dust opacity dominated by absorption. However, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations have shown that these assumptions might not be correct in the case of protoplanetary disks, leading to overestimation of particle sizes and to underestimation of the disk‚Äôs mass. Here, we present an analysis of high-quality ALMA and Very Large Array images of the HL Tau protoplanetary disk, covering a wide range of wavelengths, from 0.8 mm to 1 cm, and with a physical resolution of ‚àº7.35 au. We describe a procedure to analyze a set of millimeter images without any assumption about the optical depth of the emission, and including the effects of absorption and scattering in the dust opacity. This procedure allows us to obtain the dust temperature, the dust surface density, and the maximum particle size at each radius. In the HL Tau disk, we found that particles have already grown to a few millimeters in size. We detect differences in the dust properties between dark and bright rings, with dark rings containing low dust density and small dust particles. Different features in the HL Tau disk seem to have different origins. Planet-disk interactions can explain substructure in the external half of the disk, but the internal rings seem to be associated with the presence of snow lines of several molecules.

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 Dates: 2019
 Publication Status: Published in print
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Title: The Astrophysical Journal
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 883 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: -