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  Millet agriculture dispersed from Northeast China to the Russian Far East: integrating archaeology, genetics, and linguistics

Li, T., Ning, C., Zhushchikhovskaya, I. S., Hudson, M., & Robbeets, M. (2020). Millet agriculture dispersed from Northeast China to the Russian Far East: integrating archaeology, genetics, and linguistics. Archaeological Research in Asia, 22: 100177, pp. 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.ara.2020.100177.

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 Creators:
Li, Tao1, Author           
Ning, Chao1, Author           
Zhushchikhovskaya, Irina S., Author
Hudson, Mark1, Author           
Robbeets, Martine1, Author           
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1Eurasia3angle, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2301699              

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Free keywords: Millet, Agricultural dispersals, Hongshan culture, Tungusic, Russian Far East, Manchuria
 Abstract: Broomcorn and foxtail millets were being cultivated in the West Liao River basin in Northeast China by at least the sixth millennium BCE. However, when and how millet agriculture spread from there to the north and east remains poorly understood. Here, we trace the dispersal of millet agriculture from Northeast China to the Russian Far East and weigh demic against cultural diffusion as mechanisms for that dispersal. We compare two routes for the spread of millet into the Russian Far East discussed in previous research—an inland route across Manchuria, and a coastal/inland route initially following the Liaodong Peninsula and Yalu River—using an archaeological dataset including millet remains, pottery, stone tools, spindle whorls, jade and figurines. We then integrate the archaeological evidence with linguistic and genetic findings in an approach we term ‘triangulation’. We conclude that an expansion of agricultural societies in Northeast China during the Middle to Late Hongshan (4000–3000 BCE) coincided with the arrival of millet cultivation in eastern Heilongjiang and the Primorye province of the Russian Far East. Our findings support the inland, Manchuria route for the dispersal of millet to the Primorye and suggest that, as well as long-distance cultural exchange, demic diffusion was also involved. Our results are broadly compatible with the farming/language dispersal hypothesis and consistent with a link between the spread of millet farming and proto-Tungusic, the language ancestral to the contemporary Tungusic languages, in late Neolithic Northeast Asia. © 2020 The Authors

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-032020-06
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 21
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: 1. Introduction
1.1. Neolithic expansions in East Asia
1.2. Millet cultivation and expansions
1.3. Millet dispersals to the Primorye: previous research
1.4. Natural setting and environment
2. Routes of millet dispersal: Yalu vs. Manchuria models
2.1. Archaeological evidence
2.1.1. Millet remains
2.1.2. Stone tools
2.1.3. Ceramics, portable art and spindle whorls
2.1.4. Jade
2.1.5. Stone circles
2.1.6. Summary of archaeological evidence
2.2. Genetic evidence
2.2.1. Research history
2.2.2. The Yalu vs. Manchuria models
2.3. Linguistic evidence
2.3.1. Family tree
2.3.2. Maritime borrowings in proto-Tungusic
3. Evidence for demic versus cultural diffusion
3.1. Archaeology
3.2. Genetics
3.3. Linguistics
4. Conclusions
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.ara.2020.100177
Other: shh2533
 Degree: -

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Project name : Eurasia3angle
Grant ID : 646612
Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

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Title: Archaeological Research in Asia
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Amsterdam : Elsevier
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 22 Sequence Number: 100177 Start / End Page: 1 - 21 Identifier: ISSN: 2352-2267
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2352-2267