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  Gravity in the Era of Equality: Towards solutions to the Hubble problem without fine-tuned initial conditions

Zumalacarregui, M. (2020). Gravity in the Era of Equality: Towards solutions to the Hubble problem without fine-tuned initial conditions. Physical Review D, 102(2): 023523. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.102.023523.

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Zumalacarregui, Miguel1, Author              
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1Astrophysical and Cosmological Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_1933290              

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Free keywords: Astrophysics, Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics, astro-ph.CO,General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, gr-qc,High Energy Physics - Phenomenology, hep-ph,High Energy Physics - Theory, hep-th
 Abstract: Discrepant measurements of the Universe's expansion rate ($H_0$) may signal physics beyond the standard cosmological model. Here I describe two early modified gravity mechanisms that reconcile the value of $H_0$ by increasing the expansion rate in the era of matter-radiation equality. These mechanisms, based on viable Horndeski theories, require significantly less fine-tuned initial conditions than early dark energy with oscillating scalar fields. In Imperfect Dark Energy at Equality (IDEE), the initial energy density dilutes slower than radiation but faster than matter, naturally peaking around the era of equality. The minimal IDEE model, a cubic Galileon, is too constrained by the cosmic microwave background (Planck) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to relieve the $H_0$ tension. In Enhanced Early Gravity (EEG), the scalar field value modulates the cosmological strength of gravity. The minimal EEG model, an exponentially coupled cubic Galileon, gives a Planck+BAO value $H_0=68.7 \pm 1.5$ (68\% c.l.), reducing the tension with SH0ES from $4.4\sigma$ to $2.6\sigma$. Additionally, Galileon contributions to cosmic acceleration may reconcile $H_0$ via Late-Universe Phantom Expansion (LUPE). Combining LUPE, EEG and $\Lambda$ reduces the tension between Planck, BAO and SH0ES to $2.5\sigma$. I will also describe additional tests of coupled Galileons based on local gravity tests, primordial element abundances and gravitational waves. While further model building is required to fully resolve the $H_0$ problem and satisfy all available observations, these examples show the wealth of possibilities to solve cosmological tensions beyond Einstein's General Relativity.

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 Dates: 2020-03-132020
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: Summary for busy readers. 26 pages + appendices, 16 figures
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Title: Physical Review D
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 102 (2) Sequence Number: 023523 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -