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  Free electron gas in cavity quantum electrodynamics

Rokaj, V., Ruggenthaler, M., Eich, F. G., & Rubio, A. (2022). Free electron gas in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Physical Review Research, 4(1): 013012. doi:10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.013012.

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PhysRevResearch.4.013012.pdf (Publisher version), 2MB
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PhysRevResearch.4.013012.pdf
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Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Open access publication funded by the Max Planck Society.
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https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.09236 (Preprint)
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 Creators:
Rokaj, V.1, 2, 3, Author           
Ruggenthaler, M.1, 2, Author           
Eich, F. G.1, 2, Author           
Rubio, A.1, 2, 4, Author           
Affiliations:
1Theory Group, Theory Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society, ou_2266715              
2Center for Free Electron Laser Science, ou_persistent22              
3ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, ou_persistent22              
4Center for Computational Quantum Physics (CCQ), Flatiron Institute, ou_persistent22              

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 Abstract: Cavity modification of material properties and phenomena is a novel research field largely motivated by the advances in strong light-matter interactions. Despite this progress, exact solutions for extended systems strongly coupled to the photon field are not available, and both theory and experiments rely mainly on finite-system models. Therefore, a paradigmatic example of an exactly solvable extended system in a cavity becomes highly desirable. To fill this gap we revisit Sommerfeld's theory of the free electron gas in cavity quantum electrodynamics. We solve this system analytically in the long-wavelength limit for an arbitrary number of noninteracting electrons, and we demonstrate that the electron-photon ground state is a Fermi liquid which contains virtual photons. In contrast to models of finite systems, no ground state exists if the diamagentic A2 term is omitted. Further, by performing linear response we show that the cavity field induces plasmon-polariton excitations and modifies the optical and the DC conductivity of the electron gas. Our exact solution allows us to consider the thermodynamic limit for both electrons and photons by constructing an effective quantum field theory. The continuum of modes leads to a many-body renormalization of the electron mass, which modifies the fermionic quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi liquid and the Wigner-Seitz radius of the interacting electron gas. Last, we show how the matter-modified photon field leads to a repulsive Casimir force and how the continuum of modes introduces dissipation into the light-matter system. Several of the presented findings should be experimentally accessible.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-11-052020-06-182021-12-092022-01-06
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: arXiv: 2006.09236
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.013012
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Project name : This work was supported by the European Re- search Council (Grant No. ERC-2015-AdG694097), the Clus- ter of Excellence “Advanced Imaging of Matter” (AIM), Gru- pos Consolidados (IT1249-19), from the NSF through a grant for ITAMP at Harvard University, and SFB925 “Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems“.
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Title: Physical Review Research
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: College Park, Maryland, United States : American Physical Society (APS)
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 4 (1) Sequence Number: 013012 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2643-1564
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2643-1564