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  Genomic adaptations to cereal-based diets contribute to mitigate metabolic risk in some human populations of East Asian ancestry

Landini, A., Yu, S., Gnecchi-Ruscone, G. A., Abondio, P., Ojeda-Granados, C., Sarno, S., et al. (2020). Genomic adaptations to cereal-based diets contribute to mitigate metabolic risk in some human populations of East Asian ancestry. Evolutionary Applications, n/a(n/a): 13090. doi:10.1111/eva.13090.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-D834-C Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-D835-B
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Landini, Arianna, Author
Yu, Shaobo, Author
Gnecchi-Ruscone, Guido Alberto1, Author              
Abondio, Paolo, Author
Ojeda-Granados, Claudia, Author
Sarno, Stefania, Author
De Fanti, Sara, Author
Gentilini, Davide, Author
Blasio, Di, Author
M., Anna, Author
Jin, Hanjun, Author
Nguyen, Thanh Tin, Author
Romeo, Giovanni, Author
Prata, Cecilia, Author
Bortolini, Eugenio, Author
Luiselli, Donata, Author
Pettener, Davide, Author
Sazzini, Marco, Author
Affiliations:
1MHAAM, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2541699              

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Free keywords: dietary selective pressures, evolutionary medicine, genomic adaptation, human Asian populations, metabolic risk
 Abstract: Abstract Adoption of diets based on some cereals, especially on rice, signified an iconic change in nutritional habits for many Asian populations and a relevant challenge for their capability to maintain glucose homeostasis. Indeed, rice shows the highest carbohydrates content and glycaemic index among the domesticated cereals and its usual ingestion represents a potential risk factor for developing insulin resistance and related metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, type 2 diabetes and obesity epidemiological patterns differ among Asian populations that rely on rice as a staple food, with higher diabetes prevalence and increased levels of central adiposity observed in people of South Asian ancestry rather than in East Asians. This may be at least partly due to the fact that populations from East Asian regions where wild rice or other cereals such as millet have been already consumed before their cultivation and/or were early domesticated have relied on these nutritional resources for a period long enough to have possibly evolved biological adaptations that counteract their detrimental side effects. To test such a hypothesis, we compared adaptive evolution of these populations with that of control groups from regions where the adoption of cereal-based diets occurred many thousand years later and which were identified from a genome-wide dataset including 2,379 individuals from 124 East Asian and South Asian populations. This revealed selective sweeps and polygenic adaptive mechanisms affecting functional pathways involved in fatty acids metabolism, cholesterol/triglycerides biosynthesis from carbohydrates, regulation of glucose homeostasis and production of retinoic acid in Chinese Han and Tujia ethnic groups, as well as in people of Korean and Japanese ancestry. Accordingly, long-standing rice- and/or millet-based diets have possibly contributed to trigger the evolution of such biological adaptations, which might represent one of the factors that play a role in mitigating the metabolic risk of these East Asian populations.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-08-08
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 42
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction

Methods
- Samples collection and genotyping
- Data curation and assembly of a Pan-Asian dataset
- Population structure analyses
- Selection scans on the identified population clusters
- Shortlisting of the most informative candidate adaptive genes
- Gene network analyses aimed at testing for polygenic adaptation

Results
- Exploring population structure in the assembled Pan-Asian dataset
- Identification of genetically homogeneous population clusters
- Detection of genomic regions enriched for selective sweeps in each population cluster
- Fine mapping of the most informative candidate adaptive genes
- Investigation of polygenic adaptive events in the Han-Tujia and Japanese clusters

Discussion
- Population clusters within the South Asianand East Asian genomic landscapes
- Distinctive patterns of adaptive evolution in candidate and control population clusters
 Rev. Type: No review
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1111/eva.13090
Other: shh2682
 Degree: -

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Title: Evolutionary Applications
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Wiley-Blackwell
Pages: - Volume / Issue: n/a (n/a) Sequence Number: 13090 Start / End Page: - Identifier: Other: 1752-4563
Other: 1752-4571
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1752-4563