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  Leaf wax lipid extraction for archaeological applications

Patalano, R., Zech, J., & Roberts, P. (2020). Leaf wax lipid extraction for archaeological applications. Current Protocols in Plant Biology, 5(3). doi:10.1002/cppb.20114.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-E07B-3 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0006-E098-1
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Patalano, Robert1, Author              
Zech, Jana1, Author              
Roberts, Patrick1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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Free keywords: archaeology, human evolution, isotope analysis, lipid biomarkers, paleoecology
 Abstract: Plant wax lipid molecules, chiefly normal (n-) alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, are frequently used as proxies for understanding paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change. These are regularly analyzed from marine and lake sediments and even more frequently in archaeological contexts, enabling the reconstruction of past environments in direct association with records of past human behavior. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of these compounds are used to trace plant type and water-use efficiency, relative paleotemperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration of leaf and soil moisture, and other physiological and ecological parameters. Plant wax lipids have great potential for answering questions related to human-environment interactions, being for the most part chemically inert and easily recoverable in terrestrial sediments, including those dating back millions of years. The growing use of this technique, and comparison of such data with other paleoenvironmental proxies such as pollen and phytolith analysis and soil carbonate and tooth enamel isotope records, make it essential to establish consistent, best-practice protocols for extracting n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids from archaeological sediments to provide comparable information for interpreting past climatic, ecosystem, and hydrological changes and their interaction with human societies.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-08-132020-09
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 38
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction

Basic Protocol 1: Total lipid extraction
- Materials
- Setup of Büchi SpeedExtractor E-916 Pressurized Speed Extractor (PSE)
- Creation of a new method
- Sample preparation
- Extraction process
- Post-extraction procedures

Support Protocol 1: Weighing the total lipid extract
- Materials

Support Protocol 2: Cleaning the PSE extraction cells
- Materials

Alternate Protocol 1: Soxhlet total lipid extraction
- Materials
- Precleaning of Soxhlet apparatus and consumables
- Sample preparation
- Soxhlet extraction

Alternate Protocol 2: Ultrasonic total lipid extraction
- Materials
- Sample preparation
- Ultrasonic extraction

Basic Protocol 2: Separation of lipids by aminopropyl column chromatography
- Materials

Basic Protocol 3: Separation of lipids by silver‐nitrate‐infused silica gel column chromatography
- Materials
- Column preparation
- Column chromatography

Support Protocol 3: Preparation of silica gel infused with 10% silver nitrate
- Materials

Basic Protocol 4: Methylation of n‐alkanoic acids
- Materials
- Methylation
- Isolation of FAMEs

Basic Protocol 5: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC‐MS)
- Materials
- Preparing samples for GC analysis
- Setting recommended parameters for GC-MS operation
- Operating the GC-MS for sample analysis
- Identifying compounds

Basic Protocol 6: Gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC‐IRMS)
- Materials
- Tuning the IRMS
- Setting recommended parameters for GC-IRMS operation
- Operating the GC-IRMS apparatus for sample analysis

Commentary
- Background information
- Critical Parameters
- Troubleshooting
- Statistical Analysis
- Understanding Results
- Time Considerations
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/cppb.20114
 Degree: -

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Project name : PANTROPOCENE
Grant ID : 850709
Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

Source 1

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Title: Current Protocols in Plant Biology
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
Affiliations:
Publ. Info: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Pages: e20114 Volume / Issue: 5 (3) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISBN: 2379-8068

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Title: Current Protocols in Plant Biology
  Abbreviation : Curr Protoc Plant Biol
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
Affiliations:
Publ. Info: Chichester : Wiley
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 5 (3) Sequence Number: e20114 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2379-8068
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2379-8068